How globalization has affects air pollution in China

Air pollution in China causes, effects and solutions

Severe problems as a result of globalization are ignored at the risk of health and economy. In China, smog hangs heavy over Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong where kids grow up with asthma and other respiratory illnesses.

Air concentration levels exceed World Health Organization’s air quality guidelines. This means an increase in health risks to the cardiovascular system, cerebrovacsular system and increase in the probability of cancer or premature death.

China’s economy may have skyrocketed over the decades but all industries and power plants are belching out black, dirty air. These emissions in released into the air cause more harm to the citizens than they may actually know.

The buildup of these harmful substances into the respiratory system may take time but are completely harmful. Incidences of cancer, heart disease, stroke and respiratory diseases are the order of the day with some people succumbing to death in some situations.

Hebei is the most severely affected region in China. It has the highest percentage of pollution cases. The main cause in this region as well as all over China is the burning of coal in factories, power plants and oil combustion by vehicles.

The Greenpeace Movement is a Non-governmental Organization that is working on campaigns to reduce air pollution, not only in China but all over the world.

The fight against air pollution starts with an individual and ends with the whole society. It’s our responsibility as countrymen and not fully the government’s task to finish this monster. So, let’s stand up and fight.

Ankle foot orthosis (AFO) and ischemic heart disease (CHD)

Ankle foot orthosis (AFO) and ischemic heart disease (CHD)

Ankle foot orthosis (AFO) is a brace or an orthosis that supports the ankle and a part of the foot. The braces are L-shaped and they are externally used to support the foot and the leg. Mainly, AFOs are made up of plastics, metal, leather, fabrics or any other combination.

Types of AFO’s

Static AFOs- the type is quite flexible and rigid. It’s L-shaped and runs extends from the upper part to the underfoot. It’s used when a paralyzed or weakened leg requires support in a set position. Can  be used to control abduction and adduction.

Dynamic AFO’s

It allows optimal function and can facilitated movement. Used to treat adult acquired flat foot

Ischemia heart disease

The condition occurs to the heart when it doesn’t receive sufficient blood. It manifests itself as a recurring discomfort and chest pain. Most cases are caused by arthrosclerosis. The condition is regarded as a lifestyle disease with people who smoke, have high cholesterol and diabetic patients at a higher risk.


  • Coronary angiography
  • MRI scan
  • CT scan

The disease is incurable though through proper management it helps reduce other associated problems like heart attack


  • Stop smoking
  • Regular exercises
  • Healthy eating

Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility

Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility

The stomach plays a central role in the digestive tract handling digestion and regulating secretion and motility. This paper highlights the pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production in light of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastritis.

Gastric acid stimulation and production

The stimulation of gastric acid production often takes place in three different phases: cephalic, gastric and intestinal. The first is the cephalic phase which is extrinsic and occurs via the vagus nerve which is stimulated when food is seen, smelled, thought of or tasted. Impulses are sent from the hypothalamus, amygdala and the cerebral cortex through the vagus nerve thereby triggering gastric acid secretion (Sembulingam  & Sembulingam, 2012). In the gastric phase, the local receptors in the stomach wall lining are stimulated. The presence of food in the stomach sends triggers the secretion of gastrin which stimulates the production of gastric acid. The endocrine system produces the hormone gastrin which is produced by gastrin cells found in the pyloric gland. The hormone gastrin is produced in the stomach upon detection of the presence of protein in the stomach. In the intestinal phase, acid production is caused by stimuli which originate from the duodenum or jejunum. In the duodenum, food causes the mucosa to produce gastrin which secretes gastric acid (Cluysenaer & Tongeren, 2012).

In GERD, decreased elimination of acid as a result of poor motility in the esophagus can contribute to the disease. Some studies have concluded that there is a link between increased gastric acid secretion and GERD (McColl & Gillen, 2009). More so, when the emptying of the acidic contents is delayed, a build-up is likely to be experienced resulting to an increase in the pressure if the reservoir or stomach such that the valve is defeated. In gastritis, the high levels of acidity result in inflammation of the lining of the stomach as high levels of acidity may cause the deterioration of the lining. Peptic ulcer disease is attributed to gastric acid secretion and the presence of H. pylori bacteria (Shils & Shike, 2006).

Impact of Behavior

Behavior largely has an impact on the pathophysiology of GERD, PUD, and gastritis. High levels of gastric acid in the stomach can be attributed to certain lifestyle characteristics. These include substance abuse, alcoholism and excessive intake of beverages which are likely to cause acidity including citric juices and coffee. Others include ingestion of poisons and abuse of drugs which leads to high levels of toxicity in the stomach (Floyd, Mimms, & Yelding, 2007).

GERD Diagnosis and Treatment

They include heartburn, vomiting or regurgitation, and coughing. Diagnosis can be done through tests such as a gastrointestinal endoscopy. An important aspect of diagnosis is to monitor the pH levels of the patient is order to determine the cause of GERD. Treatment of the disorder is aimed at managing the symptoms of the disease and preventing recurrence or worsening of the condition. The first aspect is modification of way of life through encouraging weight loss, reducing the intake of alcoholic substances and beverages such as citric juices and coffee. The patient must equally adhere to eating small meals frequently rather than large meals at once. Pharmacotherapy will entail the administration of antacids such as magnesium hydroxide, antoginists of H2 receptor such as nizatidine and cimetidine (Woo & Robinson, 2015).

Gastritis Diagnosis and Treatment

A common symptom associated with gastritis is stomach pain, heartburn, abdominal upsets and unusually dark stools. The inflammation of the stomach lining is attributed to several aspects including the long term usage of anti-inflammatory drugs which cause the depletion of the stomach lining, increased acidity in the stomach as a result of poor expulsion of the acid, high levels of bile in the stomach and in many cases the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, commonly referred to as H. pylori leads to gastric ulcers. Testing includes the performance of an endoscopy to examining the lining of the stomach as suggested by DiMarino and Benjamin (2002) in order to obtain samples to detect H. pylori. Stool tests are also done to identify the presence or absence of blood in excreta. Treatment involves administering antacids such as calcium carbonate and Milk of Magnesia (magnesium hydroxide). The patient must reduce intake of alcoholic substances and beverages such as coffee. Changes in the diet are intended to reduce levels of acidity hence foods rich in fiber are advised. The presence of H. pylori is treated using antibiotics.

Peptic Ulcer Disease Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis can be done through gastric analysis such as placement of a nasogastric in some portion of the affected tract (Bayless & Diehl, 2005). Symptoms to look out for include bleeding, satiety at an early stage of eating and continuous vomiting. The test for presence of H. pylori must be undertaken. Fecal tests can equally be done. In order to clearly visualize the ulcers, an endoscopy is required as this may reveal the size of the ulcers and help identify possible bleeding. Lifestyle change is required including the avoidance of substance abuse and stress. Antacids, with aluminum hydroxide or magnesium hydroxide, can be prescribed unless the patient is diagnosed with renal failure (Woo & Robinson, 2015).

Benefits of eating healthy foods essay

Importance of fruits and vegetables in our diet

Vitamins and minerals have a major utility in the body for disease prevention and maintenance of good health. Vitamins are important in the body for preventing minor ailments such as coughs and flu, and for boosting the immune system.

The list of vitamins consists of food acids including vitamins A, B, C, D and K as well as minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron iodine. Vitamin D is important for assisting in the absorption of calcium nutrients in the body and for preventing the occurrence of rickets, a disease of the bones.

The group of B vitamins is the most important for supporting brain related body functions. They consequently have profound effect on the psychological conditions of an individual and are important for mood regulation and preventing anxiety, depression and memory loss. Food nutrient minerals including copper, chromium, selenium and zinc are referred to as trace minerals owing to their requirement by the body in very small amounts.

Importance of foods that contain protein in our diet

It is recommended that people obtain about 10-35 percent of their daily calorie requirement from protein, with the rest coming from carbohydrates and fats, with the average adult woman requiring an average of 46 grams of protein daily, 10 grams less than men do.

Excessive protein intake can easily result from overconsumption of animal-based foods, which are referred to as complete proteins as they contain all essential amino acids needed by the body. A diet containing over 35 percent of the daily calorie requirement is risky in that a protein-rich diet.

A restricted amount of carbohydrates can cause a toxic accumulation of ketones, substances made when the body metabolizes its stored fat to compensate for energy-deficient diets. This can cause dehydration, headache and fatigue, dizziness and heart palpitations.