Why reducing child mortality is important

Causes of child mortality in developing countries

Child mortality is also known as under-5 mortality and refers to the death of infants and children under the age of five. In the year 2012 and 2011, 6.6 million and 6.9 million children under the age of five died respectively.

Even though these numbers were a decrease from the number in the previous years, these are still very high numbers of children lost in a year. About half of child deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Reduction of child mortality is the fourth of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals.

Child Mortality Rate is the highest in low-income countries, such as most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. A child’s death is emotionally and physically damaging for the mourning parents.

Many deaths in the third world go unnoticed since many poor families cannot afford to register their babies in the government registry. According to UNICEF, most child deaths (and 70% in developing countries) result from one of the following five causes or a combination thereof: acute respiratory infections, diarrhea, measles, malaria and malnutrition.

Two-thirds of child deaths are preventable. Most of the children who die each year could have been saved by low-tech, evidence-based, cost-effective measures such as vaccines, antibiotics, micronutrient supplementation, treated bed nets and improved family care.

Empowering women, removing financial and social barriers to accessing basic services, developing innovations that make the supply of critical services more available to the poor and increasing local accountability of health systems are policy interventions that have allowed health systems to improve equity and reduce mortality.

SOCIAL MEDIA’S INFLUENCE ON HATE CRIMES

SOCIAL MEDIA’S INFLUENCE ON HATE CRIMES

The rise of the internet as well as that of technology may have brought about many positives for society particularly in terms of freedom of speech and communication. It has however also created a platform on which abusive and threatening opinions can be more easily voiced, in particular against certain individuals or groups of people, which is often referred to as hate speech.

Despite hate speech being restricted to the act of verbal abuse, some experts are worried by its tendency to develop into something much serious, falling under the bracket of hate crime. A hate crime is a criminal offence motivated by hostility or prejudice based on a victim’s race, ethnic origin, religion or beliefs, sexual orientation or disability.

This kind of crime may include robberies, threats, harassment, intimidation or actual acts of physical violence such as physical assault, sexual assault, rape, torture, attempted murder or murder. Hate crimes are unique as they have a social undertone in their aim.

They are intent on sending a message to entire groups or individuals, as well as to their families and other supporters, that they are unwelcome in particular communities. What sets hate crimes apart from other acts of violence is the psychological damage that they leave behind.

The internet and social media networks are not under any sort of inspection against racist ideas, hate or abusive speech in the name of freedom of surfing the web.

Hate speech does not only declare one’s hate or anger, but also sets a premise for hate crime.

Using animals in research policy 

Rights of animals in research policy

There are policies that govern the use of animals in research practices.  The policies advocate for proper, appropriate and responsible use of all animals as subject in any experiments. Animals play a vital role in helping researchers understand development of disorders and diseases that affect both animals and human being and later coming up with effective ways that will combat them.

Animals used in research have the right to fair treatment in all the aspects, from handling, transportation, feeding, testing, exhibition, research and teaching.  The laws mainly cover laboratory animals including rats, mice, hamsters, rabbits, birds and others. Other animals like monkeys and chimpanzees are also covered by the law, as they are part of the research animals.

The reality is that the research animals have the right to proper housing, proper feeding, enough water, clean housing or cages and protection from any threat either internal or external. The research animal policies also stipulate that the animals’ health should be of priority and it should never be compromised.

Subjecting the animals to pain without any sedation is against their right. Sedating the animal during any painful the process is necessary. When killing the animal, proper procedure should be followed not to subject the animal to any suffering.

Types of Research Problems and Their Solutions

Researching has many problems but there are also a lot of solutions.

Research for students consists of long hours studying and finding out more about a particular topic or finding answers to particular questions. This can be both tedious and time consuming. Researching has many problems but there are also a lot of solutions.

Researching for students basically means finding more information data and statistics about a particular topic. It also means answering in depth a particular question in the form of  a research paper to be graded by a professor.

This researching process has some challenges it faces especialy the challenge of time. A student must allocate several hours a week for the research lest they fail the course or run the risk of not submitting the paper on time. The question of research material also comes in especially for students in rural areas where the internet connections are poor to say the least. This problems makes it  difficult for the student to make due coverage of the topic questions and therefore may fail.

The university of cincinati (2004) says that the most common reason for students to fail in the research process is because they have nebulous visions of their being in colleges. Some trainee may have been forced by their parent to do a certain course hence their objective of being in school is not to fulfill their life goals but to achieve their parents’.

University of Cincinnati (2001) reveals that students with unsolved emotional issues such as loss and anxiety may have problems completing researches since they may feel inadequate and inferior.

To solve these problems, time must be planed well especially by students who have parttime jobs. Students forced to do a particular course against their wish should work hard to pass it so they can do their course of choice in future after getting jobs. Those with emotional problems should get help through psychologists provided by the schools.

To do proper, extensive research is vital to the passing of the course hence students should make sure to work hard to finish the research paper on time and do thorough research on topics posed.

6 researched essay reasons why Transgender Surgery Is Not the Solution

Transgender Surgery Is Not the Solution

Introduction

Transgender surgery also known as sex reassignment surgery(SRS), gender reassignment surgery (GRS), genital reconstruction surgery, sex affirmation surgery, gender confirmation surgery, sex realignment surgery or sex change is the surgical process in which a person’s physical appearance and sexual characteristics are altered to resemble those of another sex. It is used as treatment for patients with gender identity disorders and trans-sex people. Although alleviating gender dysphoria, does not suffices as cure for trans-sexualism. This essay will seek to show that transgender surgery isn’t the solution.

According to sturup (52) after 19 years of gender reassignment surgery, 8 of 10 patients had died and at least 4 had acute adjustment problems and 7 had experienced depression, suicidal behavior, continuous living in the previous sex role, family rejections and trouble working. John Biver in his article surgical sex: transgender surgery isn’t the problem state that the rate of suicides or suicidal thoughts among the individuals who had SRS increased 10-fold after the surgery, 20 times more than the suicide rate in people with gender identity disorder who hadn’t undergone the surgery.  Meyer, Hoopes and Randal showed that a number of their patients showed worse postoperative adjustments than before the operation. These adjustments included serious suicide attempts, drug abuse; wish to reverse the operation and moral depravity. This only shows that the surgery brings about more problems, to the patient, than solutions.

John Biver goes on to state that transgender surgery doesn’t really change the gender of an individual because the change is biologically impossible. Men and women who undergo the surgery merely become feminized women and masculinized men. Though they have physically changed and may seem physically men or women, they remain, mentally, the sex they were originally born. They continue to act and sometimes even view themselves as what they were before the surgery.

Paul McHugh explains that some patients with body dysmorphic disorder characterized by the annihilating assumption ‘I’m ugly’ undergo the surgery as an experiment to check if they will be more beautiful and more loved if they change the way they appear to others. Most times the surgery doesn’t help because the disorder is a psychological one that needs psychiatric help. According to Richard F., Dale o. and Philip s. (12) the therapist are too willing to accept the “I’ve been feeling trapped in the wrong boy since childhood’ line and do not deal with the real issues of self-esteem, anger and pomposity.

The surgery itself also has serious complications like excessive bleeding which may lead to death or anemia. Amy hunter(2), a patient recovering from the transsexual operations says she has had to undergo dozens of surgeries to correct a 2 inch colon tear and rectal-vaginal fistula in the doctors attempts to get her to have a vagina. She also counts other post-surgery problems like chronic pain, bleeding and depression. She remembers a time when she flew from home to Michigan with a bag in her abdomen and thick pads between her legs to soak up the blood.

ACLU’s Ban on transgender military service () shows that people who are transgender have very low chances of being accepted into the military and the ban is not based on any medical examinations. This goes to show how very trans genders are discriminated. They are discriminated in all levels of life. Many transgender patients face discrimination in all areas of life: church leaders condemn them and the act, most people have trans phobia hence don’t relate with them, even when dating it becomes frustrating liking someone and them refusing to be with you because they consider you the same gender as themselves and think it will be homosexual. Dana Rivers a high school teacher in Sacramento California underwent the surgery (FtM) and despite having worked in the school for over 8 years she was fired. There are countless reports of patients being fired for undergoing the surgery or lacking papers to apply for new jobs because of the challenges faced when changing the name and gender markers in crucial documents such as the birth certificate, Gary v Hasbrouck (video).

The children of a trans gender couple of or of a transgender parent are and would be very discriminated for having parents who are not the gender they were born. This may lead to psychological trauma, pain, feelings of rejection and even confusion as to whether all people change their gender when they are older. The discrimination at the work place too can make the children live below average lives since the parents are jobs less or the have jobs that do not pay well (national gay & lesbian task force, 166).

It may also be very challenging in home where the parent changed their gender after the family already had kinds, to tell the children “ mom is your new dad.” Or “ dad gave birth to you” or “you have two dads now but he used to be mom”. Such statements may cause confusion to children and a lot of psychological trauma because of the questions the child may never get to ask the parents. Also in cases of dirvoce, the custody battle may be challenging especially in situations where mom is the biological dad and dad is the biological mom. In most custody battles the mother has more rights than the father, in a scenario like this it will be very challenging to award the rights to either parent keeping the welfare of the child first. Lawyers may have  to show documents from experts showing that sexual orientation is not relevant to the ability of the parent (national centre for lesbian rights, 4).

Conclusion

Transgender surgery is a topic that many shun from and others judge those who have undergone the procedure. Undergoing the surgery may bring more damage than help to a family or individual so the consequences of such actions must be well thought of and deliberated. Counseling should also be done to ensure that the reasons for the action are valid and are not just a passing phase of life or a mid-life crisis of sorts. One should also go to pre and post surgery counseling to help them cope with the drastic changes and with the challenges too.

Should assisted suicide be legalized in California?

Should assisted suicide be legalized in California?

Introduction

Physician assisted suicide (PAC) has become a highly contentious issue in the United States over the recent decades. Physician assisted suicide is whereby a terminally ill mentally competent patients takes prescribed lethal medication to end his/ her life. According to Aliferis (n.p.) the ‘End of Life Option Act’ assented to by Gov. Jerry Brown makes California the fifth state  in the country joining Oregon, Vermont, Montana and Washington that has legalized physician assisted suicide. This act gives terminally ill patients of legal age with less than six months diagnosed by two physicians, the attending and consulting to request for an ‘Aid-in-Dying Drug’ to help them end their lives (Aliferis, n.p.). The passing of this law was received by mixed emotions by both residents of California and health care professionals in the state. Notably, the law gives physicians the prerogative on to or, not participate in assisted suicide. Some physicians in the state have categorically refused to take part in assisted suicide citing moral and ethical reasons. On the other hand, physicians that choose to participate in assisted suicide in the state are required to follow the stipulated guidelines and will not be subject to legal charges. Advocates of physician assisted suicide argue that it allows terminally ill patients to experience death in a humane and dignified but on the other hand it is unethical, unnecessary and may create a platform for social injustices and illegal practice. As thus, assisted suicide should not be legalized in California.

Arguments for legalization of assisted suicide in California

Arguments for legalization of assisted suicide are centered on two key issues including: free will and quality of life. Supporters for legalization of physician assisted suicide argue that patients should be accorded the right to choose what to do with their own life as long as their decision does not infringe on the rights of others. As thus, by legalizing physician assisted suicide the state of California will be giving its residents legal framework which supports their ability to exercise free will over their life or, death (Sunstein 1123). In addition, terminally ill patients whose quality of life has been impaired by illness should have a right to choose death because it offers them relief from their suffering and pain. As thus, rather than living an impoverished life characterized by pain and suffering such patients have the right to choose death. In doing, they are able to escape the pain and suffering and die in a dignified and humane manner.

Argument against legalization of assisted suicide in California

There are an array of reasons why physician assisted suicide should not be legalized in California. Legalization of physician assisted suicide is unethical, unnecessary and may create a platform for social injustices and illegal practice.

Physicians by taking the Hippocratic Oath are forbidden from giving any lethal drugs or advising a patient to do so. According to Guglielmo (48), by engaging in assisted suicide doctors will be going against the values embodied in the Hippocratic Oath. The violation of the Hippocratic Oath by legalizing physician assisted suicide will also sever the doctor-patient relationship. Basically, the doctor-patient relationship is founded on trust; patients trusts their doctors because they believe that they will act with care and integrity in order to promote their wellbeing. However, by legalizing physician assisted suicide the trust between patient and doctor will be destroyed because assisting someone to commit suicide is not caring for their best interest. Basically, doctors are expected to promote the wellbeing and health of their patients; this cannot be achieved if they are aiding them to die.

Legalizing physician assisted suicide in California will create a platform for aiding premature deaths (Satz 1380). Basically, the physician assisted suicide will serve as an incentive to encourage terminally ill patients to end their lives. Comparatively, physician assisted suicide is a less expensive alternative than provision of care to a patient that will ultimately die within a period of six months or less. As thus, by encouraging terminally ill patients to commit physician assisted suicide the state is likely to make huge cost savings. In addition, due to the financial incentives associated with the physician assisted suicide stakeholders in the health care industry might encourage premature deaths. Physicians may also use coercion and undue pressure to influence terminally ill patients into committing physician assisted suicide. Terminally ill patients that do not want to place unwarranted financial pressure when given a choice not do so through physician assisted suicide may choose this route; when the decision to commit assisted physician assisted suicide is made under such circumstances it is out of the volition of the patient thus highly unethical.

Legalizing physician assisted suicide in California will also help to perpetuate social inequality in the state. In most instances, the vulnerable groups in the society such as the poor without adequate health insurance coverage will be more affected if physician assisted suicide in California is legalized (NEWSRX 1988). The affluent in the society have access to the best health care that money can buy and can be able to fund their care until they take their last breath. In addition, the affluent in the society are able to explore diverse treatment options thus are less likely to choose physician assisted suicide. On the other hand, the less fortunate are likely to choose physician assisted suicide because of the financial burden associated with other alternatives such as palliative care. Basically, rather than leaving behind huge financial burden on their loved ones vulnerable groups are more likely to choose physician assisted suicide thus will be more affected by the passing of the ‘End of Life Option Act’ in California.

There are provisions that allow terminally ill patients to decline health care. In doing so, they allow nature to take it cause and eventually they succumb to the illness. In this sense, it is necessary for the state of California to legalize physician assisted suicide. In addition, legal structure in the ‘End of Life Option Act’ in states such as Oregon does not provide control mechanisms and monitoring which in turn creates a platform for abuse and illegal practices. As thus, legalizing physician assisted suicide in California will create an environment where scrupulous physicians can engage in abuse and unethical practices undetected. In addition, no doctor can be able to predict with certainty when a patient will die. There are terminally ill patients that have recovered. As thus, by legalizing physician assisted suicide in California terminally ill patients that choose this alternative may be denied an opportunity to live a long and healthy life.

Discussion

Although, advocates of physician assisted suicide argue that it allows terminally ill patients to experience death in a humane and dignified there are an array of reasons against its legalization in California. In light of advancement in health care technology society have access to care that ensures that terminally ill patients are comfortable and free of pain during end of life. In the article, ‘Terminal Illness and Hastened Death Requests’ Rhea Farberman (427) states that…. “New technologies have given healthcare professionals more effective ways to treat and retard serious illness and therefore sustain life”. As thus, quality of life should not be used as the basis for decision to legalize physician assisted suicide in California terminally. In addition, even though patients have a freedom to control what to do with their lives doing so is an infringement of other human rights as right to quality health care. In addition, there are an array of reasons why physician assisted suicide in California should not be legalized. Firstly giving patients lethal drugs goes against the Hippocratic Oath and severs the doctor patient relationship. It will also will create a platform for aiding premature deaths, coercion and undue influence on terminally ill patients, abuse and illegal practices. The legalization of physician assisted suicide in California is also likely to affect vulnerable demographics such as the poor adversely. Physician assisted suicide is also unnecessary because a patient can take actions such as refusal of care that ensures that ensures that they do experience unwarranted pain. Physicians cannot be able to accurately predict death with certainty even among terminally ill patients thus facilitating assisted suicide is highly unethical.

Conclusion

Advocates of physician assisted suicide argue that it allows terminally ill patients to experience death in a humane and dignified but on the other hand it is unethical, unnecessary and may create a platform for social injustices and illegal practice. However, in light of the counter arguments and arguments against physician assisted suicide it should not be legalized in California.2016.

Writing an essay on causes of divorce on children using an outline and observing wordcount

Observing wordcount when writing an essay on causes of divorce on children

Writing an essay on causes of divorce on children requires proper research work on the subject and just like any other essay writing assignment, having an outline and doing deep and credible research is key to a great essay. To note prior to starting the essay, is the number of paragraphs and the total wordcount for the entire task. With this details at hand, then creating an outline for your essay becomes essay and as the next step when doing your research, following the outline will guide you in writing the essay in detail with all requirements adhered to.

Choosing the topic and Number of paragraphs for your essay

With the essay topic ready, you are a step closer to starting writing your essay. Conducting your research should be your second step to help you fill in and plan your outline prior to starting the essay. When doing this, you should also create a thesis sentence that will form the basis of your introduction paragraph and carry on to your body paragraphs. A critical step to any essay writing practice and once these 2 fundamental steps are adhered to, the writing process becomes easy and flawless.

A sample outline for a 5 paragraph essay:-

Introduction-with a thesis sentence, Body paragraph 1, Body paragraph 2, Body paragraph 3, Conclusion paragraph

and Bibliography

There are a lot of issues surrounding the topic with the writer at will to choose whichever side to support, whether parents are justified to divorce or the causes of divorce on children should be considered before taking this step. This essay will however dwell on the causes of divorce on children.

The causes of divorce are many and diverse depending on the couples involved. As a sign of disagreements between the parties involved, Divorce is an old practice between couples that has had tremendous bad effects on the society and ultimately the parties affected directly by it which are the children. Any family that has a father and mother and children, whenever separated by whatever the reason between the parents, the divorce is not only felt by the couples, the party that suffers most is the children left with one of the parents.

Lack of one parent as a result of divorce psychologically hits hard on the kids and without proper counseling and love from the remaining parent, this could affect their day to day normal lives where their studies and even their social lives fade as they end up feeling rejected by one parent and end up asking themselves many questions that cause stress to them.

Having grown with both parents and one day all that changes and you realize that your parents have separated and are not only living apart, they rarely talk to each other like before and you now have no choice of which parent you can live with, cant see them together happy, these are among the things that many children have to deal with when parents divorce. These Life changes that no one is ever prepared for especially as a child, can have devastating effects to lasting psychological effects to children that could affect their well being.

Divorce therefore can be termed as a cruel act and a selfish one at that where parents cannot resolve their differences and opt to satisfy their own selfishness by divorcing without considering the effects on their children. It is therefore an improper move to rush and get married, have children and then selfishly decide to divorce for whatever reason as the consequences hugely affect the kids more which could be a lasting effect that will alter the good life and deny them that love they had from both parents.