Education system in Saudi Arabia essay

EDUCATION SYSTEM IN SAUDI ARABIA

Education in Saudi Arabia is open to everybody, male and female. Since the country is based on Muslim values, implementation of the Qur’an and Hadith (teachings and practices of the Prophet Muhammad) is mandatory. Education is a requirement for every Muslim as emphasized in the holy book.

Saudi Arabia’s education system has undergone various changes since after establishment of the Kingdom where education was available to very few people, mostly the children of wealthy families living in big cities. Today, the country’s education system includes 25 public and 27 private universities. The country provides students with free education, books and health services.

Despite the fact that the study of Islam remains an important aspect in education, the system also provides quality instruction in fields of arts and sciences. This prepares its citizens for participation in all fields of life making the students complete to tackle all issues life throws at them.

The first university was established in 1957 known as King Saud University and was located in Riyadh. In 1954 consequently, the Ministry of Education was established, followed by the Ministry of Higher Education in 1975. Studies show that today, female students make up over half of the more than 6 million students currently enrolled.

Education in Saudi Arabia houses more than 5 million students mostly in primary schools. Controversies however based on the countries policies of education have placed the country on the spotlight with critics trying to correct their methods of teaching.

In the long run, the country provides education to every student that goes through the system. That being the case, their religious beliefs and country’s cultures should not be a source of criticism terming the country’s system of education as inadequate.

Definition of the oil pollution act

OIL POLLUTION ACT

The Oil Pollution Act was effective as of August 18, 1990 after it was signed by U.S. president George H. W. Bush. It was signed in response to the rising public concern after imperfections of the Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Federal Water Pollution Act in 1972.

The Oil Pollution Act created the national Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund available to provide up to $1 billion per spill incident. The act established limitations on liability for damages resulting from oil pollution to establish a fund for payment of compensation for such damages and other purposes.

An example of a case is the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the gulf of New Mexico. This oil spillage among many other examples such as BP oil spill has many negative effects on the water bodies.

Sea animals die due to the formation of an oil layer on the water surface therefore causing reduced oxygen in the water. The water may also cause diseases to the consumers incase affected fish are eaten due to toxins.

The law was enacted by the 101st United States Congress with an aim to protecting the country’s water bodies which are vast and used for many important purposes such as tourism. Sports also carried out on water bodies such as rafting, may not be possible as a result of oil spills. Those responsible for oil spills are highly punished.

The law stated that a company or companies must have a plan to prevent spills that may occur and have detailed containment and cleanup plan for all oil spills. To date, this law is still in place and I believe it will continue to protect all water bodies in the concerned countries.

6 Elements of Rastafarian Culture that are mostly misunderstood

RASTAFARIAN CULTURE

Elements of Rastafarian Culture

It is believed that Rastafarianism is one of the most misunderstood movements in the world. Not only is it a religion but a way of life whose code of behavior and values encompasses all facets of its moral standings, culture and social relationships.  Rastafarianism originated from the teachings of the great Black leader, Marcus Garvey, who advocated for unity among the black people and their return to their homeland in Africa. It draws its beliefs from the Bible along with African traditions and beliefs with its main objective being the unification of Africans. This paper examines an element of Rastafarianism and how this element is portrayed by the movement and non-believers of the faith.

Irrespective of the lack of knowledge about Rastafarianism, many people are aware of the fact that the movement incorporates the use of marijuana in its belief. Marijuana is a very important element in Rastafarianism and it is used in religious practices and ceremonies. The plant is seen as a source of conceptualization, wisdom and redemption. Ganja, as it is famously known, was brought to Jamaica from India. The good climate in the region supported its growth and cultivation, and it is still famously grown to date. According to Dubb, the plant has many medicinal uses and it disciplines the mind allowing it to reach a divine state. Rastafarians do not use marijuana for enjoyment or silly behavior. It is a holy weed used as a sacrament and a way to heighten community spirit bringing tranquility to the mind. (Dubb)

Rastafarian core belief and value is the promotion of love and peace in the community. A religious session where the holy weed is used is seen as a way of promoting this as believers come together to worship and pray. They also believe in the use of everything natural for consumption. As such Rastafarians are Vegans, who do not really support the use of modern medicine. Consequently, the use of Ganja is quite appropriate as it is a natural herb with many purposes. In addition, the Rastafarians believe in the Christian Holy Bible which, they claim, justifies the use of marijuana. They quote Genesis chapter 3 verse 18 “…eat every herb of the land” and Hebrews chapter 6 verse 7 “Land that drinks in the rain often falling on it and that produces a crop useful to those for whom it is farmed receives the blessing of God.” as true indications to the importance and sanctity of marijuana .

Rastafarians also have another reason for using marijuana.  It is known that they are highly affiliated with the defiance and rejection of authority. They think of the authorities as the rulers of Babylon. Babylon is the white dominated world responsible for all the ills done to the black people and it is a Rasta’s goal to escape from Babylon and return home to Africa. In addition, Rastafarians are against paying taxes and capitalism. They do not partake in any activity that will lead to the payment of revenues or that promotes capitalism. They thereby limit themselves to agriculture, mainly the cultivation of marijuana and its sale thereafter in order to make a living. This use of Marijuana is highly viewed as a rebellion against the rulers of Babylon and clearly indicates the Rasta attitude of defiance towards the authority. Due to the illegality of the marijuana plant, its use negatively contributes to the cannabis religion thereby identifying the Rastafarians as criminals and delinquents. (Grant)

The National Institute on drug abuse asserts that marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug with its users ranging from adolescents to young Adults. Many of its users believe that it does not have many negative effects. Nevertheless, the Government, irrespective of its medicinal use, has outlawed its use and people can be arrested for the sale or possession of marijuana. The understanding of marijuana’s long term brain effects is limited and inconsistent.  However, society at large continues to portray the drug as an evil to the society and a source of violence, crime, and social disintegration. Users of this drug are condemned and seen as the menace to society.

To the Rastafarian, Ganja is a source of healing and spiritual transformation. On the contrary, a non Rastafarian sees marijuana as a source of social enjoyment. It is a recreational hallucigen and an aphrodisiac that adds sexual excitement. Many young people see it as an exciting concept thus increasing the chances of its use among University and high school students. In addition, it is publicized as a good social drug by the entertainment industry with its use greatly showcased in movies and music. (Spicer) My friends and I see marijuana as a highly addictive drug whose long and short term effect being highly detrimental to a person. We believe that religion should be sober and realistic thus it is perplexing how a drug, that causes intoxication and hallucination, can be used to create spiritual unity.

The use of marijuana in Rastafarianism greatly undermines the Rastafarian ideals. To begin with, the cannabis religion is associated with the promotion of peace and love in the community. On the contrary, Marijuana is associated with crime and violence thus its use negates the whole Rasta principle of peace. How can a people who advocate for peace embrace the use of a drug that promotes violence? Consequently, the respect of God as a form of authority sprinkles down to the respect of the authority of the land. The Bible, a book that the Rasta believes in, says in Mark chapter 12 verse 17, “……Give to Caesar what is Caesar’s and to God what is God’s…” This was Jesus’ proclamation of the respect that should be accorded to the authority. Therefore, the use of Ganja as a show of defiance is totally wrong and goes against the Bible. Taking into consideration the intense effects of the drug, a great religion should not, by all means, promote its use. Thus the use of such an illegal and dangerous drug greatly undermines the strength and good will of the Rastafarian religion.

In conclusion, Rastafarianism is not all about smoking Ganja. In fact, many believers of this faith and movement have shunned the use of the drug. However, it still continues to be an important element to many other believers of Rastafarianism.

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