Causes and effects of juvenile delinquency

JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

This term refers to offences committed by children especially those under the age of eighteen. The crimes they commit are said to harm the society and or they themselves. Various reasons for delinquency have been reported in America. Sometimes children want to test their parent’s limits or the society’s limits.

Some people suggest that imposing rules such as curfews can help to curb and lower rates of delinquency but others think that this would just lead the children to want to break those rules.

Poverty levels are also associated with delinquency. Lack of supervision has also been witnessed to lead to delinquency whereby children commit crime only when their parents are not around.

Children raised by single parents are most likely to become delinquent. The environment is considered hostile since they do not get the required support needed for proper growth. Parents who are divorced may also experience delinquency from their children due to the fact that they live separately.

Those children who are found to be delinquents are taken from schools where they were formerly and put in special institutions such as special schools and centers for such behaviour. This is to show them that the crimes they have committed are in no way acceptable by law.

Parents however should ensure their children maintain high levels of discipline no matter their surroundings or living conditions. There are no excusable reasons for a child to be delinquent.

Counseling should be applied in cases where early signs of delinquency are reported. If not, this may progress as the child gets older leading to arrest and conviction.

Punishment in prisons vs rehabilitation

PRISON AND PUNISHMENT

In today’s news, there are more cases of crime than any other in the whole world. There are numerous advanced crimes that have developed over the past years and instead of the police department and concerned bodies being able to curb this vice, the criminals have found new ways to not get caught.

They are in a way proving to be much smarter than our authorities. With anxiety about crime comes the inevitable search for causes and solutions. Some people claim that some of the cases of looting, vandalism, arson and violence occur as a result of the police being ill-prepared. This is however just a suggestion and is not necessarily true.

Since crime is a fact of life, we face the question of what to do about it. In many countries such as Britain and Australia, the most severe judicial punishment is that of imprisonment.

This period in prison helps to stop the criminal from re-offending and does not necessarily mean that he will not use his links to get crimes done by others on the outside.

The longer time spent in prison, the lower the rate of committing the offence once more. The threat of prison also makes offenders think twice before committing whatever offence they want to commit.

The whole nature and purpose of punishment is to bring change in the life of the offender and offer an opportunity for rehabilitation. Even though imprisonment may not be an end solution to high crime rates, it is indeed a solution we can all rely on before a  better one is brought into existence which is not any time soon.

5 major goals of corrections

CORRECTION ISSUES AND GOALS

Correction may take many forms depending on the cultures and policies of a certain community or country. There have been various issues that have arisen as a result of the many means of correction. An example is imprisonment that has attracted a lot of both negative and positive attention from different groups and people in the society.

Some suggest that it is not enough for one to undergo years of being put in jail, and those that have one through this system require more than time away from friends and family and need to be made to understand the implications of whatever offence they may have committed. All goes wrong especially after the offenders have completed their jail term and are released to the community.

The five traditional goals of punishment are: retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, restoration and incapacitation. Each of these punishments reflects features of criminal punishment.

In the retribution goal, the punishment is imposed by a sentencing judge. It is intentionally given as a means of getting back at the offender and giving some form o f closure to the victim.

Deterrence is used as a tool to prevent others from committing similar crimes. The judge imposes a sentence and makes it clear for others to see that if they do the crime, they will also have to do the time.

The rehabilitation’s goal is to reform the criminal offender. The punishment is imposed by a judge who believes this person can be rehabilitated. The offender is put through a program that has a positive impact on the person’s life.

Restoration makes the offender and the victim whole again and punishment may involve payment of fines, restitution and community service.

Finally, incapacitation prevents the offender from committing future offenses. Jail or prison definitely provides an unpleasant consequence.

Common parole violations

Types of parole violation

Parole is the release of a prisoner after he/she has agreed to certain conditions before the completion of the maximum sentence period. If the parolees/prisoners violate any of the laid down conditions, they may be returned to prison.

These conditions are such as; obeying the law, refraining from drug and alcohol abuse, avoiding contact with the parolee’s victims, being employed and maintaining contact with the parole officer.

Parole violation comes in place when the parolee goes against the set conditions mentioned above. The parolee is then taken to court while under arrest and given a hearing to determine whether the conditions of probation were broken. This case is heard in front of a judge and not a jury.

The previous case determination does not matter in this case. Evidence presented just has to be enough to satisfy the judge. The prosecution presents witnesses who are cross-examined by the defense lawyer and the defendant may testify if he/she wishes to. One is also allowed to present witnesses. The judge is then the ultimate decision maker.

The sentence after being found guilty depends on the previous probation imposed. If the violation is not serious the judge may decide that the defendant continues on probation. If the offence is serious, the previous period of jail term determines the maximum number of years given. If the parole violator was originally serving a jail term of 10 years, then the judge may decide that he/she be jailed for the same amount or less.

Probation being a period where one is given an opportunity to reform, violation of parole is considered a serious offence. It stains one’s image no matter the offence. Parolees are therefore advised to avoid going against set conditions so that they can earn themselves time out.

Relationship of prisoners with staff or fellow inmates

RELATIONHIPS OF PRISONERS

Relationships in prisons are either between the staff and the inmates or between the inmates themselves. These relationships differ in male and female prisons.

In male prisons, there are greater instances of hostility between inmates compared to female prisons. Prison violence is on the rise and ways to get rid of this issue have proved futile.

Some instances have led to the murder of inmates by fellow inmates and in some cases others have been involved in brawls with the prison wardens. In female prisons, there are lower cases of violence since females are known to be less violent.

This is not to say that all inmates relate freely with each other. There are cases of conflicts between inmates but the numbers are not high compared to their male counterparts.

Relationships of a sexual manner in prisons are also another issue in these institutions. Since the prisons are based on gender, there has been a rise in same-sex relationships in prisons.

Gayism and lesbianism can be witnessed among members of these correctional facilities. Other developing cases are those involving the prison staff and inmates. These may either involve male wardens and female inmates or female wardens and male inmates.

Some of the prison staff have been charged and others fired due to this. The main cause of such occurrences is the separation of inmates and their spouses.

Good relationships among prisoners can be enhanced through group activities and anger management sessions which encourage the prisoners to let go of their frustrations instead of unleashing them on fellow inmates.

Australian police culture essay

AUSTRALIAN POLICE CULTURE

In Australia, there are two levels of the Police Force. They are however similar. These are; the various state police forces and the Australian Federal Police. The state police forces are in charge of law enforcement within their own states while the federal police are responsible for carrying out investigations of crimes against Commonwealth law which occurs throughout the nation.

Law enforcement in the country is done by police, sheriffs and bailiffs under the control of the state, territory and the Federal government. Police are responsible for handling criminal law; sheriff, sheriff’s officers and bailiffs in each state enforce judgments of the courts and exercise civil law jurisdictions.

In Australia, there are Crime Stoppers programs run in each state and nationally. These collect information and forward it to the police to ensure that the community participates in crime fighting. Each state is responsible for handling its own security.

Policing at the state level involves; traffic policing, anti-terrorist activities as well as search and rescue. Local governments have by-laws relating to issues such as parking, dog ownership, littering or water usage. These officers are not regarded as police officers as they can only issue fines and do not have the right or power to arrest individuals.

Most police cars are predominantly white, with some having blue stripes and others orange stripes. Some police forces are embracing the use of unmarked cars and they range from Toyotas to the Hummer 3.

The presence of the police is highly felt in Australia and there is a very good relationship between the force and the citizens making it an easy task to protect the country’s inhabitants.

Different roles in the police force UK

POLICE IN THE UK

In the 18th century, law enforcement was left entirely to local initiative based on watchmen and constables. There was no nationally organized police force. With a growing population of about one and a half million people, it was difficult to regulate order in the UK.

Professional policing was taken up by Sir Robert Peel when he assumed the role of Home Secretary in 1822. The Metropolitan Police was then put in place. The government made sure not to create any notions that the police was a military force and therefore they were not armed.

The issue of policing however spread into all regions of the UK and the police force was officially established.

Today, in the British model of policing, police officers are citizens in uniform. They exercise their powers to police their fellow citizens only with their consent. In the United Kingdom, every person has limited powers of arrest if they see a crime being committed. The police force still works under the same regulatory laws as the citizens.

Most police officers are members of the territorial police forces. Upon taking an oath for any of the forces, they have all the powers and privileges, duties and responsibilities of a constable in one of the three distinct legal systems of that country.

Police forces employ police staff whose duty is to perform many functions to assist officers and support the smooth running of their police force. These individuals are under the direction and control of the Chief of Police who decides which powers they may use.

Members of the armed forces also carry out the duties of police officers when need be. Police officers are allowed to carry guns today as a means of self protection as well as crime regulation.

With this in place, the UK is a safe place to live.

History of Euthanasia in Australia

Should Euthanasia be legalized in Australia

In Australia, Euthanasia or assisted death has been the major subject of much legal, religious, moral, philosophical and human right debate. The core concern of the debate is the way competing values will be reconciled.

The wish of individuals who are suffering choose to die with dignity and the need to defend the natural right to life as recognized by the constitution. Although the act of euthanasia has remained debatable for a period, it’s still unlawful.

Several attempts to make Euthanasia in Australia legal have been tried but they faced major opposition from critics. Among the attempts was the attempts to amend the right of terminally III Act 1995.

This had a provision that allowed medical assisted voluntary euthanasia if the person who is terminally ill requests. Although it was discussed at length, it was made inoperative by the federal parliament.

Decriminalization of Euthanasia is sparked a great debate in 2004 and was greatly supported by major parties in Australia. Although there are no major prosecutions, which have been so far done.

The only major concern was the case that involved a nurse who euthanized the father who had terminal cancer and had again attempted doing the same to the mother. She was convicted and sentenced to two years imprisonment. Euthanasia in Australia still is a major concern.

Compare and contrast Theories of Crime causation

Theories of Crime causation

Theories of crime causation vary greatly. A few believe that concentrated poverty causes crime. Others claim that criminal behaviors are generally as a result of negative thought and reactions to normal people and characters. Other theories go further ahead and claim substance abuse mental health and the sort are mainly responsible for major criminal offenses

One theory that tries to expound more about the causes of crime is the poverty concentration theory. Those who believe in this theory believe that criminality is the outcome of deteriorating communities.

Those who are claimed to be wealthy and educated i.e. thy have money, tend to retreat and neglect those areas where individuals have less skills in life and insufficient resources. They tend to believe that the setting where such people live and the regular influence they are exposed will steer majority of them to criminal activities.

Other people usually support much complicated theories of crime causation but they sometimes believe the behavior criminal exhibit can be explained through their human character.

In life, some will experience anger, jealousy and desire. While some will deal with such experiences in a legal manner, criminologists believe that such feelings will direct criminal actions.

Poor upbringing and unaddressed psychological problems are other major causation factors.

What is the role of police in today’s UK society essay

POLICE IN THE UK

In the 18th century, law enforcement was left entirely to local initiative based on watchmen and constables. There was no nationally organized police force. With a growing population of about one and a half million people, it was difficult to regulate order in the UK.

Professional policing was taken up by Sir Robert Peel when he assumed the role of Home Secretary in 1822. The Metropolitan Police was then put in place. The government made sure not to create any notions that the police was a military force and therefore they were not armed. The issue of policing however spread into all regions of the UK and the police force was officially established.

Today, in the British model of policing, police officers are citizens in uniform. They exercise their powers to police their fellow citizens only with their consent. In the United Kingdom, every person has limited powers of arrest if they see a crime being committed. The police force still works under the same regulatory laws as the citizens.

Most police officers are members of the territorial police forces. Upon taking an oath for any of the forces, they have all the powers and privileges, duties and responsibilities of a constable in one of the three distinct legal systems of that country.

Police forces employ police staff whose duty is to perform many functions to assist officers and support the smooth running of their police force. These individuals are under the direction and control of the Chief of Police who decides which powers they may use.

Members of the armed forces also carry out the duties of police officers when need be. Police officers are allowed to carry guns today as a means of self protection as well as crime regulation. With this in place, the UK is a safe place to live.