Why is marriage called an institution


20 years ago, couples married at an earlier age. Today, they are older when they marry and the percentage has declined. The greater numbers of couples today choose to live together outside of marriage. But why has marriage as an institution failed?

Marriage institution is very important as it gives and conveys a sense of meaning, purpose, direction and stability that tends to benefit adults and especially children.

Marriage decline lays blame mostly on women liberation. In the seventies, women went to school and entered the work force hence delaying motherhood. Today, many women fall pregnant in school, even before they get married. Cases of teenage pregnancy have risen all over the United States.

Today, marriage is about love and love is about personal fulfillment. So without this extra glue, of financial interdependence people who no longer feel fulfilled will easily leave the relationship.

Two decades ago, a couple would stay married even if the relationship was not really working, for the sake of probably the children. Things are different in today’s society and an unhappy couple will be most likely to divorce, regardless of the age of their children or social status in the community.

Women are able to control their fertility by use of birth control pills in today’s society. They can plan their families as well as their careers. This was not the case two decades ago, where women used less birth control. In some cases, it was forbidden and considered immoral.

Additionally, today there are more and more single parents. Many people are claiming that the institution of marriage is becoming obsolete. There is also less sense of responsibility from males who leave women pregnant and after delivery, leave them to raise children on their own.

With all the difficulties facing the marriage institution in today’s society, marriage is still alive and well.

Positive and negative effects of processed foods

Benefits of processed foods

Food processing is the transformation of raw ingredients into food, or of food into other forms. Food processing typically takes clean, harvested crops or butchered animal products and uses these to produce attractive, marketable and often long shelf-life food products.

Food processing dates back to the prehistoric ages when crude processing incorporated slaughtering, fermenting, sun drying, preserving with salt, and various types of cooking for example roasting, smoking or oven baking. Modern food processing technologies developed in the 19th and 20th centuries was largely meant to serve military needs.

Benefits of food processing include toxin removal, preservation, easy marketing, and increased food consistency. In addition, it increases yearly availability of many foods, enables transportation of delicate perishable foods across long distances and makes many kinds of foods safe to eat by de-activating spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.

Modern supermarkets would not exist without modern food processing techniques and long voyages would not be possible.

Processed foods are usually less susceptible to early spoilage than fresh foods and are better suited for long distance transportation from the source to the consumer.

When they were first introduced, some processed foods helped to alleviate food shortages and improved the overall nutrition of populations as it has made new foods available to the masses. The extremely varied modern diet is only truly possible on a wide scale because of food processing.

Transportation of more exotic foods, as well as the elimination of much hard labor gives the modern eater easy access to a wide variety of food unimaginable to their ancestors.

Are Sexual Assault Incidents on College Campuses on the Rise or Has Awareness Just Increased among students

Sexual Assault on Campus Students

Sexual assault in colleges has become rampant over the past decade a hike that researchers attribute to the growing awareness of the problem which has allowed more victims to come forward. It is clear that the sexual assault crime is one that is very underreported. This essay will address the question has sexual assaults increased on college campuses or is it just the awareness of the problem that has increased?

The white house task force to protect college students from assault’s first report(2014) showed that 1 in every 5 students has been sexually assaulted during their college career. 16.9% by an intimate partner(including current and former spouses, opposite sex and same sex cohabiting, boyfriends/girlfriends and dates), 21.3% by an acquaintance, 16.7% by a stranger and 6.5% by a relative other than the spouse. Some victims had multiple assaults. According to the research, only 2% of victimized college women report to the police. The most frequent reasons being they did not think it was serious enough, others felt ashamed, feared they’d be held responsible or didn’t want anyone to know what happened.

In her book Dianne Hales shows a table  by the college Health Assosiation, America College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II: Reference Group Executive summary Fall 2012-2013

Male% Female%
A physical fight 10.5 3.4
A physical assault(non-sexual) 5.1 3.4
A verbal threat 25.1 15.1
Sexual touching without their consent 3.2 7.3
Sexual penetration attempt without their consent 1.1 3.4
Sexual penetration without their consent 0.9 1.9
stalking 3.5 6.5


The same research also showed that at day time only 89.7% of males and 86.8% of females felt safe in their campus and at night the number dropped to 53.8% of males and 28.7% of females.

According to Matt Rocheleau, last year the sexual assaults reported in colleges were 289  which compares  to 206 in 2012 which was 5 times more in the past five years. Research clearly shows that sexual assaults have rampantly increased over the past few years each year cases being more than the last. However, maybe  it is not the cases that have increased its just the awareness. With increased awareness of sexual assaults their consequences on the assailant there is bound to be increased number of reports (Police Chief Barbara O’Connor). A higher number of reports show that more and more students are becoming aware of their rights and are feeling more comfortable to come forward and report but the high number of reports also indicates that many are still being victimized. Measures need to be taken to educate students on ways to protect themselves (like walking in well-lit routes), where to report in case of an assault and where to access the medical attention required after rape or physical assault.

An article by Aimee Hirsch where University Police Chief John Rossi was interviewed he says that there is no way to measure how, when or where the offences are occurring but one major cause is alcohol abuse by either the proprietor or the victim. 75% of men and 55% of women are taking alcohol or drugs before the rape occurs. The use of alcohol and drugs creates a gray area because statistics show that up to 37% of students consume alcohol prior to being sexually active. Alcohol too has been shown to have its effects on the brain, maybe someone may confuse a yes with a no, or it just maybe a wrong choice one wouldn’t make when sober. Alcohol and drugs make it tricky to judge whether it was rape or not. However law states that a person who is drunk, drugged or otherwise incapacitated cannot consent to sex which means drunken consent is not considered as consent.

Awareness allows individuals to know instances of sexual abuse and enables one to know that they are not the only ones experiencing it and it is okay to report the offender and get the needed help to overcome the trauma. Awareness teaches students to know their alcohol limits, watch their drinks when they go to the washrooms, to trust their gut feeling when it warns them of danger and to always stick with their friends and to walk in groups instead of just one person, and also to seek counseling when one has undergone rape or assault.(Best College).


Sexual assault has been in existence in colleges since time e memorial. The awareness to the issue, its effects, where to report, how to recognize assault and how to prevent it; has brought about the large number of reports currently being witnessed. It’s not that the assaults have increased. the large number of reports each year indicate that more and more people are now aware of their rights and therefore it  gives them more freedom no report assaults.

Colleges have also put up measures that are simpler to follow and possibly more anonymous which allows college students who have been assaulted to feel its is not their fault and what has happened to them doesn’t have to happen to any one else. So to answer the question “has sexual assault in campuses increased or is it the awareness of the issue that has increased”, the answer is no sexual assaults have not increased but the awareness has increased the number of victims who are reporting assault.

The five stages of counseling as described by Corey and Corey

Five Stages of Counseling

The five stages of counseling as described by Corey and Corey according to Guindon (2011) are:

  1. Establishing a working relationship

A counselor has to build rapport with their client in order to explore the issues and difficulties experienced in a manner that makes the client comfortable. Trust is essential and can positively affect the successful outcome of counseling. The counselor is expected to provide the client with an environment that is safe, confidential and offers empathy. Just like any relationship, boundaries are important and in this case, the relationship should be limited to therapeutic settings as this allows both parties to stay on course. Objectives must be clearly set

  1. Identifying clients problems

Counseling should help clients identify their problems.  The client has the opportunity to speak their mind and heart and indicate missed opportunities, challenges or difficulties experienced. The counselor simply guides them or helps them tell their story. Some clients are reluctant to reveal details but an effective relationship makes this a possibility. The goal of counseling is to help clients discover the changes that they want to make themselves.

  • Helping clients create goals

The counselor should help the client set goals and identify what he or she would like to get out of the counseling process. Setting goals determines the direction which the relationship will take. Lack of goals results in an aimless relationship and clients are not entirely committed to the counseling process. It is imperative for counselors to help their clients set realistic and clear goals as this motivates them to search for strategies to achieve them.

  1. Encouraging client exploration and taking action

Client exploration and taking action is the core of counseling as it seeks to help people solve their existing problems effectively or develop skills which can help them cope with their problems. The role of the counselor is to guide the client and give them the opportunity to fix these problems meaning that they have to make their decisions based on their evaluations. Counseling should build a person’s skills in fixing problems.

  1. Termination

The relationship is terminated or ends once the objectives or goals set have been achieved. This means that the client can overcome their problems or challenges using the strategies devised with the help of their counselor.


Short term effects of divorce on children

Short term effects of divorce on children

Currently there is a major concern regarding the increased cases of divorce. Although psychologist were not much interested about the short term effects of divorce on children, it is now their major concern as they are impacting negatively on the quality of life  of their children. They warn parents who are about or just thinking of having a divorce to be much aware of the major long-term and short-term effects the action may have on the children.

Children are troubled by the course of divorce and feel below short-term effects

Children are too young to understand the whole situation therefore; they might take the blame and feel responsible of the problem

The effects may be far taken to school and friends and more often children become uncooperative, aggressive and violent

Lashing both partners and they end up being disrespectful

Stress and if not checked ends up to depression

Ability to concentrate at school affecting the performance and schoolwork

Anger and resentment resurfaces and it always directed to the parents due to the split up

Fear of abandoned and sometimes they isolate themselves due to fear of suffering

Loss and grief may arise

Occurrence, increase or re-emergence of wetting bed if the child is young