How to write a literature review for thesis and research paper


Literature review is an account of published materials on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. It is an overview of the field of inquiry. Literature review is often part of the introduction to an essay or thesis.

Its purpose is to convey to the reader what ideas are talked about on a topic as well as give strengths and weaknesses; the pros and cons. A literature review must be defined by a guiding concept e.g. research objective to avoid outlining every single content of the subject in question for example a book. It is not a set of summaries or a list of contents.

It lets the writer gain skills in information seeking as well as acquire ability to apply principles of analysis to identify unbiased and valid studies (critical appraisal).

It must be organized and related directly to the thesis. It also synthesizes results into a summary of what is known and what is not known, identifies areas of controversy in the literature and formulates questions that need further research.

Basic guidelines include:

  1. Review guidelines of the writing format e.g. APA format.
  2. Decide on a topic.
  3. Identify literature you will review.
  4. Analyze the literature.
  5. Summarize the literature in table/concept map format.
  6. Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review.

Like all forms of academic writing, literature review must have an introduction, body and conclusion. Those writing a literature review should strive to understand the content they are studying so as to achieve good results. This is by reading and understanding the piece of literature.

Note that the review needs to further the reader’s understanding of the problem and whether it provides a rationale for your research.

Reasons why learning international languages is important


Learning a foreign language in itself is a task that requires one to be completely committed and willing to learn. The process is not as easy as many may think but there are many avenues through which a person may get to learn.

Learning is endless and each and every day we get to know something new we did not. Learning foreign languages is a way of accepting the diversity of culture in the world as well as their lingual nature. It is indeed an interesting process and one who seeks to learn acquires more than just pronunciation of the specific language.

There are steps that are very easy to follow; learning the right words the right way. One may think that by asking around meanings of names, they may actually get to learn a language. Many people out there would actually lie to please themselves or as a way of making a joke.

Make sure you either attend a school program or any online program available. Make sure you interact as much as you can in the language you are learning. For example if you are learning Spanish, go to Spanish restaurants and interact with those there who most likely will be Spanish.

Get to learn the culture of the language you are studying so that you can appreciate it more. You may actually get to learn things that you did not know making you like the process even more.

Learning is a process. You should therefore take your time. Do not rush into anything and end up not getting it right. Perfection is the key to making everything look and sound good.

All I can do is wish the lot of you who want to start this journey of discovery. You will never regret it!

History of binge drinking in college


What is binge drinking? This is the consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol in a short period of time. The definition of binge drinking in the United States is the consumption of five or more drinks in a row by men or four or more drinks in a row by women at least once in the previous two weeks. Heavy binge drinking includes three or more such episodes in 2 weeks.

Binge drinking in colleges is said to differ from one college to another. Some colleges may experience intense cases of drinking while in others, drinking is not so common.

In recent years, this form of drinking has become very popular due to the fact that companies that produce alcohol have portrayed a wrong message that drinking actually makes one “cool”. This has led to the rise in consumption of alcohol all over the United States not only among students. Studies show that in fact, there has been a downward trend in number of students’ bingeing.

Virtually all students experience the effects of college drinking whether they drink or not. The problem is the negative consequences that result from excessive drinking. About four out of five college students drink alcohol. About half of college students who drink, also consume alcohol through binge drinking.

Statistics show that 1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die each year from alcohol-related intentional injuries, more than 690,000 students between ages 18 and 24 are assaulted by another student who has been drinking. More than 97,000 students in the same age specification are victims of alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape.

The causes of college drinking may be varied but this does not excuse the act. Many parties can put an end to binge drinking starting with students themselves. The next time you pick up a bottle, think about the consequences.

Winston Churchill’s death, legacy and quotes inspirations


Winston Churchill is a legend and is well known all over the world for his involvement in politics over a long period of time. He was the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, born on 30th November, 1874 and died on 24th January 1965.

He was born at Blenheim Palace to the prominent Tory politician, Lord Randolph Churchill. Winston Churchill’s involvement in politics may have actually been genetic or following in his dad’s footsteps. Winston Churchill was destined for greatness from his birth till the time of his demise.

He worked tirelessly throughout the war building strong relations with the then U.S. President Roosevelt. He took his chances in politics and in 1900 he became the Conservative M.P. for Oldham. He however lost power in the 1945 post-war election but remained leader of the opposition.

Winston popularized the term ‘Iron Curtain’. In 1951, he became Prime minister again but resigned in 1955 where he remained an M.P. until shortly before his death.

He left a legacy of an impressive number of publications and in 1953; he won the Nobel Prize for literature. His death hit the world hard since his loss was highly felt among politicians and peace keepers all over.

Winston’s quotes are considered real and true. They depict of his real life teachings and are of great influence to learners and scholars all over the world.

I choose to leave you to ponder on one of his quotes: “Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference”.

Teaching English Saudi Arabia problems


Teaching English in Saudi Arabia is among one of the highest paid professions in the country. Saudi is also one of the highest paying destinations in the world. The average English language teacher can expect to earn between $2500 and $4000 per month tax free.

They are often given free accommodation as a part of the package. That accommodation is usually a large, clean and modern apartment with Saudi Arabia also having one of the highest standards of living.

The fact that the teachers have good pay does not mean that it is all smooth sailing. The teachers that are highly looked for are those who have a minimum of a bachelor’s degree and other schools require the teachers to possess at least a master’s degree.

These individuals are also required to have at least 1 to 2 years of experience. Native speaking teachers are preferred compared to fluent English speaking teachers from non-native English speaking countries.

Despite these high expectations, there is still an evident shortage of teachers in the country. Even though there are many advantages of being an English teacher in Saudi Arabia.

The fact that these individuals are in a strict country with very specific laws and regulations especially since the country is based on Muslim laws. Entertainment facilities in the country are also rare since there is a strict ban on alcohol consumption.

There may be many advantages especially the fact that there are many luxuries that come with the profession. However the fact that one is in a foreign country may be discouraging to many.

Treatment Approaches for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

How to treat a child with Apraxia of Speech

Apraxia is a dynamic disorder that often far much a disorder of combining elements that production of elements in particular. The main challenge is identifying and putting all the elements together.

Though a child is able to make a given consonant sound or rather a given vowel sound the challenging part is combining them together to a syllable.

For less impaired or older children, it may be a challenge of making sensible sentences or just combining the sentences to make understandable paragraphs.

With respect to the ability of a child to read, he may be in a position of knowing which letter stands for which sound but may fail blending them together to make a complete and meaningful word.

Some of the treatment approaches include:

  • Occupational, co-therapy or physical therapy. They have proven to be quite helpful movement activities.
  • Monitor and treat language symptoms if appropriate. Grammatical word ending should be taught following the easiest phonological order.
  • Activities with lower and higher communication pressure should be included to enhance the automaticity of words and/or syllables in the child’s repertoire.
  • Communication pressure should be reduced so as the child finds it easier speaking
  • Reduce everyone’s frustrations

Narrative Essay

Writing a short Narrative Essay

As a form of expository writing, the narrative essay presents writers with the chance to not only think but also write about themselves. Students should consider that when writing a narrative essay, they are essentially narrating a story.

It is therefore critical for a student to include the elements of story telling which include a plot, characters, a setting, climax as well as an ending. This type of essay is also characterized by details that are meant to provide comprehensive support to the story.

In writing a narrative essay, the student must strive to be entertaining since he is essentially either recounting an event or illustrating a given idea.

A narrative essay has five basic steps including defining the purpose. Here, the student must critically explain why they are telling the story being that every essay must have a purpose. In addition, the student should critically establish the context of their narrative by answering the questions, who, what, where and when.

The student must also determine which point of view he will use to tell his story and to ensure consistency is achieved with the chosen format. The student must also include a wide range of details in order to ensure clarity selecting only the facts that are relevant.

The pupil must also consider that narrative essays follow a chronological timeline and should therefore ensure that they keep their tenses consistent.

Scholarship essay

What makes a great Scholarship essay from start to conclusion

Scholarship essays present the opportunity for judges to learn more about the personality of the applicant since it presents a clear definition of the interests and value systems of the applicant and why the scholarship is important to the applicant to get the scholarship.

The essay should have a clear outline since this is often the key towards writing an organized and clear essay. The essay should have an introductory sentence that states the applicant’s name as well as the name of the scholarship which the student is applying for.

This should be followed by a description of the educational objectives and career goals. In this case, the student must identify his major, explain why he selected this major, the impact this degree will have on their career plans as well as their future plans.

The essay must also provide a brief background of the applicant his interests and the situations and factors that led him to the present day. In this part, the student must provide clear examples that describe their character and strengths and must include interests such as hobbies and volunteer work.

The student must also describe the reason why he needs the scholarship and the difference that it will make. The student can wrap up the essay using a few sentences.


Tim O’Brien character analysis

Tim O’Brien the things they carried character analysis

Tim O’Brien is both a protagonist and the main narrator of the Things They Carried. He is the amplifier of most of the events we view in the book.

We slowly follow Him from the time of the war recollection, from the time He receives his draft notice until later his return to Vietnam as a middle-aged father.

In this great work, O’Brien struggling to release anguish and pain that has accumulated due to his war experiences depicts the main conflict.

Tim O’Brien character analysis


This character is depicted as compassionate, diligent, introspective and honest. Kiowa is much practical in his actions as we see him helping soldiers rationalize their own actions, by removing the moccasins and walking silently and more so O’Brien who has killed a Vietnamese soldier.

Being a Native American and a Baptist, he portrays a different perspective regarding the unfortunate events that befall Alpha Company. His death is a symbol of senseless impacts of war.

Jimmy Cross

His character is a representative of those people who feel they are too immature and unsure of their responsibilities. He cares less about the war and when given a chance to lead into the battle is quite unsure of what steps to take. He is viewed as the Christ mfigure.

Letter Of Advice For A Newly Engaged Couple: How To Effectively Use Interpersonal Skills In Their Relationship

Letter Of Advice For A Newly Engaged Couple: How To Effectively Use Interpersonal Skills In Their Relationship



Author’s Name:

Class information:

Professors Name:

Date of submission:








Dear Mary and John,

Congratulations on your new engagement. Many times you hear that marriage changes the relationship partly because communication and other attributes fall to the wayside. Interpersonal skills can be a building block in how you relate as a couple but it can also be affected by how good a speaker and listener one is. In this letter I will cover many topics such as principles and misconceptions in effective interpersonal communications, barriers to effective interpersonal interactions and appropriate levels of self-disclosure in relationships. However keep in mind that I will not be sharing any details from my personal life, I will just give you guidelines.

Principles and Misconceptions in Effective Interpersonal Communications

According to Richard west and Lynn Turner, interpersonal skills are irreversible and unavoidable for example when a couple is discussing an issue like finance and one notices some money missing and when they consult the other they just sit they and avoid making  eye contact and keep clearing their voice and shifting positions. Without knowing it, the party is communication something even without them intending to. If the accusing party decides to hurl insults, though they apologize, they may never be forgiven and even if forgiven the insults will never be forgotten. One needs to be careful, words once said can never be taken back and their effect may linger decades later.

Alan Sharland also states that for communication to be effective we need to treat others with respect. That we need to stop demonizing, criticizing, judging and complaining and start enjoying life with our loved one: To enjoy every minute as though it was our last. To make conversations more useful, productive and fun we need to stop talking and listen. When others know that we are listening and that we are interested in what they are saying they in turn will learn to listen to us. Even in misunderstandings and arguments, we learn more buy listening and in listening we avoid blowing an issue out of proportion.

In relationships of any sort and especially marriage one needs to learn to speak for themselves instead of assuming and speaking for the other person. If a friends invites you out for coffee, brunch or dinner don’t say we will be there instead say I will be there or ask the consent of the other person. They may love you but that doesn’t mean they will stop their life for everything you plan for them.

The hugest misconception people make is to challenge an individual instead of an action. When one is wrong avoid saying things like “you are incompetent, you always want to hurt me, you are a jerk”, instead say “what you did made me feel hurt or you hurt me a lot when you said this or did that. Another issue most common in couples is the issue of confidentiality. If your significant other tells you something you don’t have to go share it with your best friend; some secrets should just remain between the two of you.

Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Interactions

            Holgan Kevin states it clearly and I couldn’t say it better; hearing instead of listening and failing to understand before making your point are the biggest relationship killers. The biggest barrier of communication is when gender comes in. Men feel that women make the rules and when men come close to understanding them, they are changed. A successful relationship is between two people who know that the other person is not a mind reader and that the relationship is more of a partnership than a child- parent relationship. So don’t mutter clearly state what you are saying and don’t compete be civil and know it is a 50-50 partnership the success of one is the success of all. And use the communication language of the other person; avoid using diction that is only meaningful in your family setting.

Mind reading should be avoided at all costs. Never assume you know what your partner is thinking, ask always ask. You may have been together for years but not even a mother knows what her child is thinking or feeling and they came from her own loins. Some times too you have to agree to disagree, its normal, it happens. Not everything can be resolved: if she like butter and you like jam fine don’t try to convert the other just buy both and agree to disagree.

Natalie Chandler(2013) says sandbagging is a burden in a relationship. It is mostly common in women where the pile up one complain after another in an urguement and end up making the other person feel confused and frustrated. Always stick to one urguement at a time: solve one problem at a time.

Process by Which Self-Concept Is Developed and Maintained

Self-concept is a person’s total view of themselves (Siraj, 2014). It is learned, organized dynamic and changeable. It can be constructed by communication to ourselves and others; who we tell ourselves we are, who we tell others we are, who others tell us we are or who society says we should be. (Sole, 2011). Work on your own self concept because your individual beliefs of yourself will affect the quality of your relationship and your beliefes are mostly fueled by emotions rather than logic.

Rigidity and being unable to change our self-concept in a relationship can be damaging. The healthier ones self-concept: the healthier the relationship. Learn to be civilized in the way you communicate and how you perceive yourself and the relationship as a whole. The relationship can change a person’s self-concept for example a relationship can influence whether one sees a high-paying job as priority, whether they see themselves as worthy of being loved and whether they see themselves as a go-getter.  So shape you relationship in such a way that your self-concept is changed for the better, to bring better things into the relationship.

Appropriate Levels of Self-Disclosure in Relationships

Self-disclosure is the communication process in which one reveals themselves to another. A study by Susan shows that women believe that a realationship where husbands disclosed themselves to their wives was likely to last longer than one where there was no discloseure. I must say that this goes bothe ways. There is more security in a relationship where there is disclosure because one is rarely caught off guard by information or rumuors.

It is a risky yet necessary   process of building a healthy relationship. However appropriate disclosure is necessary and in your case crutial. Studies have also shown that sel dislocure depth increaseses and the intimacy in a relationship decreases. This is to show that disclosure if done inappropriately may cost the relationship. An example is a person cheating on their spouse, they disclose this information to the spouse which is good, in appropriate disclosure maybe  the spouse telling the other that sex with the other person(cheating party) was better. Always press and hold the urge to disclose when the relationship in in stress or amidst a fight or storm( loss of loved one, loss of home).

There is never a right time to disclose something. never hold an issue you want to talk about with your spouse because you haven’t found the opportune moment. However be carefull to be sensitive don’t bring up an issue like cheating when your spouse has lost a parent but you can bring up a different issue like children’s fees or grocery shoping


Emotional Intelligence and Its Role in Effective Interpersonal Relationships    

            Emotional intelligence is the ability to acknowledge one’s own and other’s feelings, being able to discriminate among them and use information to guide ones thinking and involves

– Self-awareness, observing an emotion as it happens

– Emotional maturity, facing up to fear, sadness, anxiety

– Self motivation, channeling emotions into service of a goal

– Empathetic understanding, sensitizing one’s self to others feelings and concerns

– Quality communication, managing the emotions in others using communication based on empathetic listening.

Being aware of your own interpersonal emotional intelligence is crutial in a relationship especially during urguements as it allows for civilized speech instead of shouting and frustrations. To build interpersonal skills one needs to be aware of their own and others emotions and defying them, if need be, to communicate from logic not emotions.

Strategies for Managing Interpersonal Conflicts

            How do you react when you are having a serious disagreement? Do you get angry curse and call names, do you pretend everything is okay, do you withdraw because you don’t like arguing or do you keep quiet and give the silent treatment? Conflict in a relationship does not have to go as above. During conflicts focus on what happened from your point of view, how it made you feel and what you thought. Like we said only speak for yourself, don’t make assumptions about why the other person did what they did. Don’t think that blame needs to be shifted to someone in conflict. When we don’t shift blame or assume we know what one is thinking we change the direction of the conflict. Instead of a person coming to us defending themselves from our accusations, they respond to our questions and give explanations. And sometimes like mentioned before we just have to agree to disagree and know when to pick our battles, some fights are just not worth it.

Relationships are a beautiful thing and finding that one person you want to wake up next to everyday for the rest of your life is wonderful. But amidst all the fairytale of living happily forever and ever, we must not forget that both of you are human and raised in different environments so you will naturally behave and view things differently. However, it is possible to have a successful relationship, not perfect but successful. I wish you both all the best of luck!

Kind Regards,



Alan, Sharland. ( ) The Guide to the Principles of Effective Communication and Conflict

    Resolution London available at

Holgan, Kevin. (2011). Can’t Get Through: Eight Barriers to Communication London published

            by pelican publishing

Natalie Chandler (2013) Ten Barriers To Communication In Marriages And Relationships

            available on Nov 2014 from


Richard West, Lynn Turner. (2010). Understanding Interpersonal Communication: Making

            Choices in Changing Times New York: published by Cengage learning

Sprecher, Susan; Susan Hendrick (2004). “Self-Disclosure in Intimate Relationships:

Associations With Individual and Relationship Characteristics Over Time”. Journal of

            Social and Clinical Psychology 6