What caused the BP oil spill

THE BP CASE

This is an oil spill case against the BP oil company. The spill occurred on April 20th 2010 when a deepwater oil well exploded in the Gulf of Mexico. The immediate effect was that it killed 11 people and injured 17 others.

Oil leaked at a high rate therefore making it difficult to calculate. It is however estimated at 40,000 barrels a day. The oil posed risks to the environment and affected local industries.

The government asked for $20 billion in damages from BP and BP’s share price fell as a result. Local industries such as fishing were threatened. There was a ban on fishing in the water at the time due to this. Tourism declined in the region also due to the spill.

Environmental impact of the oil spill was that plants and animals were completely covered in the oil. Seabirds, sea turtles and dolphins were found dead. Oil entered the wetland areas meaning recovery would be slow. Fish stocks were harmed, and productivity decreased.

The size of the oil spill was one of the largest America had seen. Due to entry of the oil into warm waters, organisms in the water helped to breakdown the oil.

The overall impact may be less than Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in 1989 which happened in colder water. That however does not excuse the company’s lack of application of safety measures to counter such problems and instances.

The company may have faced losses in compensation as well as reputation but this in no way brings back the lives lost in the incident.

Significance of Britain nuclear plant stations

BRITAIN NUCLEAR PLANT

Nuclear power generates around a sixth of the U.K’s electricity, using 16 operational nuclear reactors (AGR), one pressurized water reactor (PWR) and one Magnox as well as a nuclear reprocessing plant at Sellafield.

In U.K, the first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1956 and at the peat in 1997, 26% of the nation’s electricity was generated from nuclear power. Since then many reactors have closed down, the remaining, Magnox plant will close down in 2014. The older AGR reactors have been life-extended, and further life extensions across the AGR fleet are likely.

In October 2010, the British government permitted private suppliers to construct up to 8 new nuclear power plants. However, the Scottish government stated that no new nuclear power stations will be constructed in Scotland.

The U.K Atomic Energy Authority was established in 1954 as a statutory corporation to oversee and pioneer the development of nuclear energy. Following the 2011 Fukushima I nuclear accidents, Chris Huhne, Secretary of State for Energy and Climate change wrote to Dr. Mike Weightman asking for a report on implications of the situation and lessons to be learnt for the U.K nuclear industry.

The nuclear industry has led to the development of other industries linked to it. Its survival however in the next 5 years is not assured according to critics. That being besides the point, it has still provided employment to a vast population and will continue to do so as long as it exists.

China environmental problems and solutions

China’s environmental crisis facts

Issues affecting biophysical environment as well as human health are due to rapid industrialization and lax environmental oversight. 16 of the most polluted cities are in China. This should be a cause for concern.

In 2012, there was increased citizen activism regarding decisions made by government which were perceived as environmentally degrading. Retired Chinese Communist Party official reported more than 50,000 environmental protests occurred in 2012.

In 2014, China amended its protection laws to help fight pollution and reserve environmental damage in the country. The companies that are considered great contributors to pollution have been shut down as a result.

The greatest problem affecting this course of action however is corruption. Many government officials are paid off to prevent closure of some prime companies in China. This has resulted to failure in trying to kill pollution in China.

However, China was listed among top 15 countries in the world with the most “closed forest”. 12% of land area is closed forest. Preservation efforts are more crucial due to the growing population.

Loss of natural habitats in China due to land reclamation has resulted in destruction of 65% of tidal wetlands around China’s Yellow sea coastline in approximately 50 years.

Desertification is also expanding at a rate of 67km2 and above every year. 90% of this occurring in the West of the country. 30% of surface area is desert.

The “Green Wall of China” project initiated in 2001 that cost $8 billion was aimed at restoring most desert land to forest by 2050. This may sound unachievable to some but where there is a will, there is a way. Good luck to China.

Russia pollution solution

RUSSIA’S ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Russia’s production of a significant portion of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions makes it an important country in international climate negotiations. Many of the environmental issues in Russia are attributed to policies which were put down during the Soviet Union a time when pollution control was not taken seriously by officials.

It was considered an unnecessary obstacle to development and industrialization. By the 1990s, 40% of Russia’s territory began to show signs of ecological stress due to deforestation, pollution and nuclear waste.

Extensive logging has been a major cause of deforestation in Russia and despite efforts by the authorities to preserve forests using reserves and parks; illegal logging activities are still widespread.

Inefficient energy usage as well as use of fossil fuels is another major environmental issue. 68% of Russia’s energy is produced by polluting fossil fuels and is a large producer of these same fuels.

Instances of water pollution and air pollution are also on the rise. 75% of surface water and 50% of all water in Russia is now polluted. This has led to increased issues of health in the country. Russia’s air is among the most polluted in the world.

Pollutants are released into the air from industries and vehicles. Over 200 cities in Russia exceed pollution limits. This increases as the number of cars continues to increase on the roads.

The government needs to put in place laws that regulate pollution of any kind with an aim of cleaning the air and waters of Russia.

Effects of pollution on humans animals plants and the environment

How does pollution  affect the environment.

Abstract
The practice of pollution has been obvious in this 21century. There   are  good  number  of  human  and  natural  activities  that have  been  occurring  in the  past.  Environment has since changed miraculously. The  residents  of  United  kingdom  have  witnessed several  challenges including  the  health  status  .  There  are various cause  of  pollution  that  have  currently  remained
persistent  , this  results  to  many  types  of  pollution . Many sources  of  pollutants  have  been  increasing  every  day we develop  new  life  skills  .   In  this  paper  we  shall  explore the  effects  of  pollution  to  the environment ,  the  causes  and major  types  of  pollution  – air ,  water ,  and  soil , sound
pollution .

How pollution has affected the environment. United  Kingdom  has  since  this  error  witnessed  great  negative and  positive environmental  changes .  This   is  due  to  increased pollution  of  the  environment . Pollution  can  be  as  a  result of  human  activities  or  natural  activities  that  have occurred in  this  nation .  In  attempt  of  integrating  of  technology  in the  agriculture and  industry  to  enhance  high  productivity  of food  and  products  which  is  of  course  helping  in  realizing national  development ,  I  remain  reluctant  when  pollution activities  take  the  order  of  the  day. This essay  will concentrate  on  the  effects  of  pollution  to  the environment ,  the  causes  and  the major  types  of  pollution .

Pollution  is  caused  by  several  factors  .The  developed country  has  got  a  lot  of activities   that   are   propelling the   economy.  The motor vehicles   that   are   not well maintained   and   airplane   can   cause pollution to  the
environment.  Others  include  :  Chemicals   and   petroleum from
refineries   that   are   not   treated  ,   farming   activities like  ,   agricultural   operations   of   growing   crops   and rising   animals  ,   plants   generating   electric   power   by burning   coal  ,   oil  ,   and   the   natural   gas  pollute  air
especially  when  emissions  of  smock  and  sulfur  dioxide are associated  with  smog’s . Environmental protection uk ,(2014).
.
Commercial   operations   of  dry  cleaners ,  bakeries ,   and local   garages  are  also  agents  of  pollution .    Forest operations   ,   mining    activities   ,   and   the   regular activities   of   the   municipality   of  preparing  drinking  water
and  wastewater  are serious  cause  of  environmental  pollution. Pollutants   have caused tremendous effects on the   environment. Air   pollution has caused a  lot of damage to the environment.

Once this   air   is   released  from   exhausted engines  and  vehicles in  bad  conditions,  it  damages  the plants, and   animals  inviting biodiversity  as  the  vegetation and  the   ecosystem  is  polluted. Polluted air  contains  mercury which  is  very harmful  when  released  to  the  environment. The  burning coal  may  have  tresses of  mercury that   are  exposed to the  air   and   from   the   cement   plants.

Several  strong winds moving at high speed cause   a   lot   of   soil erosion. This condition brings long  drought  seasons to the environment. Such   environmental  changes lead to food insecurity in   some areas. The pollutants have dangers to the health of the people as they are close to the environment that is polluted.

There are many types of pollutions that have occurred in the United Kingdom. This range from ,air pollution ,soil pollution, water pollution ,noise pollution, and other natural disasters that have finally left UK in serious crisis .Pollution of any type has affected the environment negatively especially causing the climatic changes .The scientist have had times to predict on the coming seasons due to inconsistence of the climatic circles .

Finally, the coming generation will find little to enjoy if this trend is still allowed to rise tall. There should be serious commitments to wards environmental conservation processes. This problem has become national challenge but it requires individual approach. I t should be an obligation of every individual citizen to collaborate with the national government to ensure such pollutants are not allowed to our environment if they are not treated .

4 positive outcomes of the Oregon clean air act

Positive mandate of Oregon clean air act

Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is the regulatory agency mandated with the job of protecting and enhancing the quality of environment in Oregon.

To further support the duty, Air Quality Monitoring section in the laboratory section DEQ the laboratory division responsible for giving accurate scientific data regarding the state of Oregon’s air Quality.

The division ensures that National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) as required by the federal clean air act.DEQ assess pollutants level in different sites by using different measuring equipments throughout the state of Oregon.

As part of particulate speciation and toxic sampling DEQ monitors for Federal Air Act by monitoring nitrogen Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Total suspended particulate, Ozone, Lead, fine particulate and others. Oregon clean Air act is prohibiting smoking at workplaces. Restaurants, workplaces and bars mare smoke free places.

The Oregon Clean air Act is prohibiting smoking from the areas to ensure they protect the employees and people working in such places. The act prohibits an individual smoking within ten feet from entrance, exit, public places, ventilations, open window and intakes of work places.

Limited exception to the act is to incorporate qualifying cigar bar, smoke shop and a twenty-five percent of motel and hotel rooms.

Toxicity Testing on the impact of chemical agents in living organisms

Toxicity Testing

Toxicity testing is used to evaluate the impact of chemical agents in living organisms. Research continues to use animals in studies which are used to predict adverse health effects on human beings. This paper analyses the current policies based on the SOT (Society of Toxicology) principles, elaborates the objectives and end points of toxicity testing and indicates the relevance of the information to learning.

Evaluation of current policies based on SOT principles

The policies are in accordance to the SOT guiding principles as they reflect the spirit of the society in light of the usage of animals in toxicology. The first objective of the society, “the design and conduct of the best possible scientific research” is in line with the principle of investigators and personnel being qualified and appropriately trained to conduct procedures on animals, humane care and the use of lab animals. This indicates that they must be armed with necessary knowledge and skills for best practices.

The second objective which is the responsible use of animals in research and testing to promote the quality of human life and the health of animals satisfies the principle on care and handling of animals which holds that individual must be trained and experienced in the proper care and handling of what is being studied. This ensures that the best care is accorded to test animals. The third objective regarding the use of alternatives to animals echoes the sentiments of the guiding principle which states that “When scientifically appropriate, alternative procedures that reduce the number of animals used refine the use of whole animals or replace whole animals”. Fourth, research conducted must make use of less painful and stressful procedures with the goal of improving animal care. This is in accordance with the guiding principle on the use, care and transportation of animals for training and research for the sole purpose of protecting these animals and adhering to welfare laws. More so, this indicates the observation of reasonable steps that are undertaken to reduce discomfort, pain and distress in animals (SOT, 2006).

Lastly, the goal of reducing the number of animals used for research and testing is achieved by the principle which states that when scientifically appropriate, other procedures that reduce the use of animals in tests or replace the use of whole animals are encouraged and considered. More so, careful selection of specifies that are used in research must be done to and animals kept at minimum required to achieve reliable results.

Determining exposures which may cause adverse health effects

Toxicologists have to determine which exposures may cause adverse health effects. Research is undertaken on animals in an attempt to establish the baseline for physiological processes which are then mapped to human beings. The aim is to determine how dosage levels cause changes in living organisms and specifically what adverse effects can result from the use of certain chemical substances. The use of animal studies is intended to reveal the levels of does which can result in toxicity as well as identify those which are beneficial. In vitro methods are undertaken to ensure that human beings are note exposed to toxic chemicals (SOT, 2006).

Relevance of information to learning

The information in the case study helps in providing guidelines in toxicity testing, specifically associated with the use of animals in order to determine permissible levels of exposure to certain agents and chemicals. Exposure to various chemical and agents result in different effects in the human body depending on the level of exposure. It is important to clarify the risks to health and research subjects which are associated to exposure for the purpose of defining relevant risk management decisions.

Objectives of toxicity testing

Ideally, toxicologists conduct safety tests. Initially they are undertaken in test tubes before being tested on animals. The testing defines the threshold levels which may be no impact, beneficial effects and harmful effects. An example is paracetamol which is a drug intended for pain relief. Paracetamol is used for headaches, back pain, menstrual pain, tooth pain and many other types of pain. However, excessive intake of paracetamol leads to liver failure in human beings, which may eventually lead to death (Nash & Guha, 2011). Another example is nutrient deficiency. For example, lack of Vitamin D in pregnant mothers is associated with adverse health outcomes in the unborn including birth complications. To prevent such outcomes, women who are found to have a low dose of Vitamin D are advised to take supplements and this is especially the case for women who cannot access sufficient sunlight as a result of their geographical location.

End points of this toxicity testing

The endpoints of toxicity testing assist in determining the levels of dose administration as well as the mode of administration, for example, intravenous, inhalation, subcutaneous or intradermal. The researchers determine the maximum dose which can be tolerated as well as the average dose that living organisms including human beings can handle. It also serves to identify the potential organs in living organisms which are target organs for possible toxicity which must be monitored when such substances are administered. The changes in the manner in which these organs function are

The position of SOT on animal testing

I agree with the Society of Toxicology on the use of animals for testing. This is due to the fact that they are a vital component of research and can be used to draw inferences about the human population when assessing levels of risk. However, care and proper procedures must be observed to minimize pain and distress in animals used.  However, going forward, I believe that new alternatives to whole animal testing such as venturing into molecular biology can be exploited to provide better means of extrapolating results in test species to the general human population.

Recycling in Kuwait to reduce pollution and promote sustainable use of resources.

RECYCLING IN KUWAIT

Abstract

Recycling is the process of re-using old or waste material into new products. Recycling has become a popular way to keep conserve and protect the environment, to reduce energy consumption, protect the ozone layer, preserve natural resources like plutonium, reduce pollution and promote sustainable use of resources. With the increase in global sensitivity about pollution and how the radioactive waste has destroyed the ozone layer and the environmental impact of the destruction, there has been increase need to recycle waste and old material into reusable products. And the waste in the landfills too need to be divide according to type of waste to enable easy identification of the material that can be recycled and the material that can rot and be fertilizer.

Solid waste management is a huge global concern. The GCC has countries with the largest solid waste output in the world, being among the richest countries Kuwait produces about 120 million tons of solid waste each year. High standards of living and the rapid economic growth have been the major causes of the high solid waste dispensation of about 1.5kg of solid waste per capita daily.

Kuwait has an astonishing number of landfills which are used to hold the large number of solid waste. There are 18 landfills but 14 have been closed and four are still in operation. These landfills have been causing Kuwait notorious health and environmental problems because the produce dangerous gasses like methane and are therefore plagued with large fires. Due the vast urban development residents have moved to the edges of the landfills causing danger to the public health

Kuwait is about 17,830sq km in size with about 18sq km covered with landfills. Hundreds of hectares are filled with these wastes. About 90% of domestic waste is sent to these mines implying that more and more landfills will be required for these wastes. All kinds of waste are sent into these landfills: domestic, municipal, food residue and plastics all are dumped together in these land fill indiscriminately.

Most landfills in the past 20 years have been close due to the close proximity to the residents and the operation problems. The landfill have been closed before reaching their due usability mostly because of the poor disposal methods and the health problems they cause the residents and the fires they bring especially for the hundreds of residents who live on the edges of the landfills.

With the high population growth and the large number of waste being deposited daily, the landfills will soon be too many to manage and this will bring even more health problems for the people of Kuwait. Authorities estimate that the needed technology to contain the waste problem in Kuwait will take KD 70 million.

The Director General of Kuwait Municipality, Ahmad Al-Sebeeh, estimated the domestic recycle at KD 100million per year. This shows that with waste recycling Kuwait can gain a huge amount of profit and preserve the environment while   taking care of its peoples health. According to Kuwait Times, the World Bank has warned that Kuwait is among the highest solid waste producers in the world.

In the city of Sulaibiya, there exists a landfill that contains over 70million tyres. The landfill is so huge and contains so many wheels it can be seen from space. It is said that the tyres are not from Kuwait only because there is a company that charges other countries substantial amounts of money to dump the wheels there too. The landfill is so hazardous in April 2012 there was a huge fire at a tire dump near Al Jahrah that scientist suspect was fueled by over 5 million tyres. The fire was so big hundreds of fire fighters, soldiers and employees of the Kuwait oil company all assisted each other to put out the fire. A month later there was another fire at Amghara scrapyard which took fire fighters from four different stations to contain the fire. Tyre fires are difficult to put out because they cause a lot of smoke which often carries toxic gases from the rubber compounds (daily mail reporter, p 1)

These landfills are becoming hazardous because:

  • When the rain water falls on the uncontained open grounds with the waste, it mixes with substances in the garbage dump like battery acid and chemical solvents from home detergents and industrial chemicals. The water mixture (leachate) then soaks into the soil and the underground water and the chemicals are then transferred to people and animals.
  • There is only so much land in the earth for landfills to be constructed every 1.1million tons of solid waste. Hence the landfills idea is really unsustainable.
  • The cost of constructing landfills, treating the water leachate and lining systems to prevent leachate are very expensive.
  • As a health issue to both people and animals, even if the leachate does not soak into the soil and water underneath, it can cause health problems since the water forms pools from which birds can drink and occasionally the poor people go to the landfills to look for food which is contaminated by the chemicals.
  • Not forgetting how aesthetically displeasing site these landfills are and how they produce horrible smells to those around them.(George Scott, p1)
  • The fires that occasionally visit the sites can cause major harm to those living around them if not contained soon enough.
  • Methane gas produced has been found to trap more of the sun’s hit than carbon dioxide causing plants to die of too much of the sun heat.

Recycling is also a problem because in Kuwait it not possible to fund the recycling project with taxes and tipping because the tipping charges at the landfills are low and the transport costs are dependent on the landfill location. This means that any recycling company must compete with any company in the market and must produce products as good in quality are those produced not through recycling.

 

Outdoor pollution Environmental issues essay

Pollution is the act of making anything unclean. It is the presence of solids, liquid or gas in an outdoor setting that are harmful to human beings. This article will therefore overlook on outdoor pollution.

An outdoor pollution courses discomforts to human beings. Outdoor air pollution can be caused by smoke or dust. Air pollution is known as the introduction of particulates, biological molecules or other harmful materials into the earth’s atmosphere.

This can cause diseases, death to human beings, and damage to other living organisms such as food crops. An air pollutant is a substance found in the air that can adversely have effects on ecosystem as well as human. Air pollution can be caused by cars, factories and manmade materials, excessive burning of fuel, release of a huge amount of chemical substances in the air every day. 

Nature can as well produce air pollution. Smoke from the chimneys, factories, vehicle or even burning of wood occurs from burning coal. This then releases sulphur dioxide into the air thus making it toxic causes global warming and acid rain as well. This has then increased temperatures, erratic rains and the droughts worldwide. This makes it tough for the survival of animals. We breathe in polluted particles from the air. This cause’s asthma and lung cancer.

Effect of pollution then follows to be;

  • Environmental degradation
  • Human health
  • Global warming
  • Ozone layer depletion
  • Infertile land