Topic: Health Issue in Africa, impact on people and current efforts to overcome and treat

Description Select a health issue to further explore which is related to a priority issue from a national or global organization.
Select only one: a national health issue or global health issue.
If you choose a global issue, it should be narrowed to a country or region in the world. For example, Africa is a continent. There are 5 sub-regions in Africa, and 54 countries
Define and fully describe the health issue.
Importance of the issue, prevalence of issue, why the issue is a health risk in the selected area you choose.
The history of the issue
the impact of the issue on the people of the country/region in which it occurs
an overview of current efforts to overcome/treat/alter the health issue
include a title page, an introduction and conclusion, in-text citations, and references.

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Topic: World Health Organization strengths and weakness

The World Health Organization’s definition of health incorporates the strengths and weakness of the ecological model. What are these strengths and weakness as applied to (A)-developed and (B) developing countries in health promotion and disease prevention strategies? As part of these strategies, specifically discuss Preventative Guidelines and their use in both (A)-developed and (B) developing countries.

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Subject: Psychology Topic: Somatic Symptom Disorders

Assignment: Somatic Symptom Disorders Individuals with somatic symptom disorders tend to have considerable difficulty with how they experience and appraise their bodily symptoms. The illness and the dysfunctional focus and behavior around the illness can assume a central role in the person’s life. Somatic symptom disorders were originally thought of as “hysterical,” without legitimate medical causation, or as hypochondriasis. Though thinking has changed, negative judgments about unfounded illnesses can still be attached to individuals with these disorders. The boundary between medical and emotional problems can be further blurred. In some cases, an individual labeled with one of these illnesses may simply be experiencing a developing medical condition that has not yet been well defined. For all of these reasons, social workers need to take particular care in diagnosing somatic symptom disorders and in providing a fully biopsychosocial and multidisciplinary approach. In this Assignment, you describe what that approach might look like for one client. To prepare: • Imagine that Jennifer Brea, whose TEDTalk (TED Conferences, LLC, 2016) you watched, is referred to you for ongoing supportive therapy when her psychiatry consultant decides that she does not have a conversion disorder. Despite the psychiatrist’s opinion, her primary care physician ignores that consult and labels Jennifer with the conversion disorder anyway. Be sure to investigate what the ‘conversion’ diagnosis means when responding. (https://www.ted.com/talks/jennifer_brea_what_happens_when_you_have_a_disease_doctors_can_t_diagnose/transcript Submit slides) in which you address the following: • Explain in a concise professional manner how you would conduct your first meeting with Jennifer. Identify specific steps you would take to understand her circumstance and needs. • Explain how you would proceed with her medical team in terms of advocacy for her as a client believed to have this condition. • Explain why you would need to take a biopsychosocial approach to her ongoing care. • Explain what social, family, vocational, Internet, and medical supports you would explore to help with her longer-term stabilization. • Analyze the controversy in diagnosing a mental disorder based on unexplained physical symptoms. Within your analysis, consider how power and privilege influence who provides the diagnoses and which groups are more likely to be diagnosed with certain disorders. Explain your thoughts on this debate. Support your presentation with research and references to scholarly literature. Please include a reference page

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Topic: Discussion: Disorders of the Reproductive Systems

Discussion: Disorders of the Reproductive Systems
While the male and female reproductive systems are unique to each sex, they share a common function—reproduction. Disorders of this system range from delayed development to structural and functional abnormalities. Since many reproductive disorders not only result in physiological consequences but also psychological consequences such as embarrassment, guilt, or profound disappointment, patients are often hesitant to seek treatment. Advanced practice nurses need to educate patients on disorders and help relieve associated stigmas. During patient evaluations, patients must feel comfortable answering questions so that you, as a key health care provider, will be able to diagnose and recommend treatment options. As you begin this Discussion, consider reproductive disorders that you would commonly see in the clinical setting.

To Prepare
• Review Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 in the Hammer and McPhee text, as well as Chapter 33 and 34 in the Huether and McCance text.
• Select two disorders of the male and/or female reproductive systems that interest you. Consider the similarities and differences between the disorders.
• Select one of the following factors: genetics, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Think about how the factor you selected might impact the diagnosis of and treatment for the reproductive disorders.

Post a description of the two reproductive disorders you selected, including their similarities and differences. Then explain how the factor you selected might impact the diagnosis of treatment for the reproductive disorders.

Required Readings
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

• Chapter 32, “Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems”

This chapter establishes a foundation for examining alterations of reproductive systems by examining the female and male reproductive systems. It covers the development of both reproductive systems and effects of aging on the systems.

• Chapter 33, “Alterations of the Female Reproductive System

This chapter covers alterations of the female reproductive systems. It also explores the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
• Chapter 34, “Alterations of the Male Reproductive System”

This chapter covers alterations of the male reproductive systems. It also explores the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2019). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

• Chapter 22, “Disorders of the Female Reproductive Tract”

This chapter reviews the normal structure and function of the female reproductive tract. It then examines disorders specific to the female reproductive tract such as menstrual disorders and infertility.

• Chapter 23, “Disorders of the Male Reproductive Tract”

This chapter reviews the normal structure and function of the male reproductive tract. It then explores disorders specific to the male reproductive tract such as male infertility and benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Required Media

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012b). Final course review. Baltimore, MD: Author.

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Topic: Benchmark – Human Experience Across the Health-Illness Continuum

Description The benchmark assesses the following competency:

Benchmark: 5.1. Understand the human experience across the health-illness continuum.

Research the health-illness continuum and its relevance to patient care. In a 750-1,000 word paper, discuss the relevance of the continuum to patient care and present a perspective of your current state of health in relation to the wellness spectrum. Include the following:

Examine the health-illness continuum and discuss why this perspective is important to consider in relation to health and the human experience when caring for patients.
Reflect on your overall state of health. Discuss what behaviors support or detract from your health and well-being. Explain where you currently fall on the health-illness continuum.
Discuss the options and resources available to you to help you move toward wellness on the health-illness spectrum. Describe how these would assist in moving you toward wellness (managing a chronic disease, recovering from an illness, self-actualization, etc.).
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

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Topic: Prevention of obesity in children from birth to 18 years old on harrow council

Following the formative assessment feedback, you should write up your chosen health intervention using ideas, theories and models suggested in the lectures and seminars and from your wider reading. The details of your intervention should be structured according to the case study template attached above (a copy of the template can also be found in Appendix 1 of the module handbook). Details of the information expected in each section are provided in the template. Additional sections may be added to the template if necessary but can only be placed as sub-headings within the main sections. You should include ideally 15-25 (minimum of 15) references to relevant statistical data and evidence from the literature. Referencing should follow the Harvard style. Any tables, graphs and other illustrations or material you include should be properly titled and labelled and placed in appropriate sections of the template. Any information included as an appendix or other attachment will not be marked. Word count: 3000-4000 words (including tables, graphs, and references) this module is a master level the module name is Policy and Public Health Strategy. basically you need an intervention as a public health practitioner. Joint Strategic Needs Assessment for each council, in this case, is the harrow council in the United Kingdom. Week 2: Defining a public health issue and the public health (or population) approach Defining a public health issue: On what grounds do we consider problems like smoking, obesity, HIV, social isolation, air pollution, etc as public health issues? Your task is to come up with a set of criteria that determine what makes an issue a public health issue. You will need to search for and read articles on the issue. A useful starting point is the article in this link https://www.epimonitor.net/Public-Health-Issues-2018.htm. The public health (or population) approach: What constitutes a public health (or population) approach? A useful place to start identifying the elements is from the definition of Public Health. in this case is the prevention of obesity from birth to 18 years old. basically you need to follow the attachment of the case study template if you follow that structure. tips on how to write your intervention attachment please read. basically focus on the case study as structure please follow every detail when you write. be a focus on concise fro the start to the end. follow the case study and see the formative examples but you need to write 4000 words as this is a summative work. but the formative examples are examples of interventions that have been done. please, this is a master level. the references can be more than 22 but good resources. you can include graphs .follow the case case study structure when you write and be extremely understandable. you need to do an intervention as a public health practitioner.

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Topic: Disparities among African Americans with hypertension

Description Paper must consist of the following:
• Title page
• Abstract
• Introduction – significance of topic to patient care and nursing practice supported with evidence based data.
• Purpose – describe how research filled gap in nursing.
• Literature review – describes and analyzes research on the topic. Begin by describing which databases you searched, search terms used, and describe how you focus on 35 references and briefly summarize how their content form the foundation of the paper.
• Method – includes research design, procedures, evaluation methods. Describes and justifies the data gathering method used and how you analyzed the data.
• Discussion of findings – Outline any descriptive analysis such as reliability tests or factor analysis. Discuss results of tests. Tables/figures should be used to summarize all numeric information.
• Recommendations – What will you do with this information?
• Conclusion
• References
• Appendices as appropriate.

Page Count for paper:
Introduction & Purpose – 4 pages total
Literature Review – 10 pages total
Method – 4 pages total
Discussion of findings/Recommendations – 6 pages total
Conclusion – 2 pages total

The purpose section should discuss the purpose of this paper
Literature review – provide search strategy.
Provide a methodology
Provide summary of the results in the discussion
Proofread the paper thoroughly.

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Topic: describing how depression is and how it manifests itself in different ways.

Paper is on depression must use minimum 12 of the terms from the uploaded file to describe depression and how it is applicable to depression and explain the terms as well as define them but in a way where it is describing how depression is and how it manifests itself in different ways.

Topic- Introducing Psychology

Psychology- The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

• We use the scientific method to understand behavior and observe.
• Psychology – A scientific study of mental processes and behavior
• Mental processes go before behavior because mental processes affect our behavior.
• How we feel impact how we behave

Psychological Universals – psychological processes that operate in all individuals, such as learning, perceptions, and memory (object relations, projective identification and defense mechanisms).

• Every individual has their own memories, experiences, learnings, etc.
• Projective identification- you have projective goals to meet, knowing what will be in the future for yourself
• Object relations- we can distinguish objects (coat, table)
• Defense mechanism- protects us, a way to help ourselves cope and make us happy

Psychodynamic Approach – A school of psychology that views behavior as a result of mental events and emphasizes the importance of conflicting unconscious mental processes and early developmental experiences for understanding human behavior

• Mental events (events that you experienced in the past) may have a major impact on how you think, and therefore how you behave
• that particular event may create a conflict for yourself such as anxiety
• Therefore, understanding that issue (your mental process) can affect your behavior in a positive or negative way

Psychometrics – An area of psychology concerned with the construction and use of tests to measure qualitative and quantitative aspects of mental processes and behavior, such as intelligence and personality

Psychopathology – The inability to behave in a socially appropriate way such that the consequences of one’s behavior are maladaptive for one’s self or society

• Inappropriate behavior
• Violation of the norms (proper way of behaving) which results in making other people uncomfortable

Psychosexual development – The stages of development that, according to Freud, all humans pass through during early life, each stage centers around a specific area of the body where psychic energy (libido) concentrates during that particular period
• Hold yourself back form socially unacceptable behavior
The Stages:
1. Oral
2. Anal
3. Phallic
4. Latent
5. Genital
(Comparative) Evolutionary Psychology – The theoretical perspective that seeks to explain social behavior in humans and animals in terms of principles of evolution

• Both humans and chimpanzees have a sense of structure but humans are a little more complex
• Genetic makeup is similar
• Deals with how the development of species impact their behaviors
Ex: Humans behavior is based on social norms while animal behavior is based on instinct

Gestalt Psychology – A theoretical approach that emphasizes that mental phenomena are best understood when viewed as organized wholes rather than when reduced and analyzed varied components

• Deals with the present, here and now
• Focuses on your needs in the present rather than the past; this results in organizing your thoughts and overcomes anxieties, phobias, and addiction
• Changing your behavior so you can adjust better

Self- referencing effect – The enhanced memory and increased ease and efficiency of cognitive processing when information is self-relevant compared to other types of information
• You tend to remember information that is important and interesting

Self Schemas – Mental frameworks, ie, cognitive structures that are used to store and process information about one’s self

• What makes you who you are? Your experiences and background
• Your personal experiences shape your cognitive structure and how you behave, which develops your identity
• It affects the way you picture/see things (your cognitive structure) and that’s what makes you different

Diagnosis – The determination that the set of symptoms or problems of a patient indicates a particular disorder

• Sometimes the symptoms of two different illnesses are the same

Prognosis – An educated projection of the likely course and outcome of an illness or psychological disorder

Psychoanalyst – A therapist who has taken specialized post- doctoral training in psychoanalysis

• Primarily the therapy procedures pioneered by Freud, entailing free association, dream analysis, and working through transference

I. Dream analysis- talking about your dreams
II. Free association- saying anything that comes to mind that associates with something specific
III. Working through transference

Topic -What makes Psychology a social science?

Goals of Psychology – To describe, explain, predict and influence human and animal behavior

• Describes and explains behavior and why people behave the way they do

• Identify the issues/causes (what causes stress, low self-esteem, etc.)

• How+when+where+why → in terms of thoughts and behavior
Examples: When you think negatively or how you think

• Goal of psychology is to find out how, when, where and why, and how it impacts behavior

• Predict the correlation between the cause and effect

• Influence- Shape behavior through therapy or treatment. (improve behavior pattern)

Hypothesis – An assumption or prediction about behavior that is tested through scientific research and experimentation

• A statement that explains the possible relationship between two or more variables

Theory – A set of assumptions used to explain phenomena and offered for scientific study

• A statement that explains how and why certain facts are related

Basic science – The pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for its own sake
• The pursuit of obtaining knowledge so you can understand and learn more
• Improve your knowledge

Applied science – Discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals

• Providing solutions

Scientific Method – A systematic approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized

• Psychology is a social science because we use the scientific method

• The main systematic scientific method psychologists use is →Empiricism →research-full systematic observation

Wihelm Wondt – He was the first man to study human behavior by empiricism, he is known as the “Father of Psychology” and he established the first psychological laboratory in Germany.

• He applied the scientific method to observe behavior in humans and animals

Phrenology – The practice of studying the bumps on a person’s head to make judgements about that person’s personality or mental state

• Nazis and other groups used Phrenology to measure intelligence, personality, and mental state and this decides who is superior over others (racism)

• Psychologists don’t use Phrenology anymore because they view it as a failed science

Pseudoscience – Purported, scientific discoveries which have little actual basis in science

• This means that the discoveries or findings are inconclusive and can’t be proven by science

Ex: the discovery of fidget spinners helping people with ADD (Attention deficit disorder)

Public sphere and the study of psychology – Mass media shapes our perception; the public sphere impacts psychology in good and bad ways:

1. The good- we obtain knowledge, the media exposes us to new information, internet makes it easy for us to do research
2. The bad- media is not always accurate, and it promotes laziness because it’s easy to find information quickly
3. And the ugly- encourages us to believe pseudoscience and false information because it’s on the internet

Structuralism – The psychological study of the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences

• How your past experiences shape who you are and how you act

1. Culturalism & psychology: How culture impacts your viewpoint on psychology. Some people will reject therapy while others want to get treated, based on how they view psychology.
2. Psychological Anthropology

Introspection – A method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings (Dream analysis)

• Ex: Therapist tries to understand your dreams and your feelings about it.
The therapist will interpret what that dream means and why you dreamt it.

Functionalism – The psychological study of how people and animals have adapted their mental processes and behaviors to their environments

• In terms of your mental state →how you deal/cope with change

Topic – Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive psychology – viewpoint in psychology that emphasizes the importance of cognitive processes such as:
1. Perception- how you view things, and therefore how you respond to things
2. Memory- positive or negative memories affect how you interact and behave
3. Thinking- positive or negative thoughts affect your mental processes

• Cognitive psychology is understanding what goes on in one’s mind

Behaviorism – school of psychology that emphasizes the process of learning and the measurement of overt behavior (behavior that everyone can see)

• Based on free will, you determine your own destiny

Social learning theory – we learn from our surroundings, how to behave and feel (from the people around us). Shapes our values, culture, and self esteem

Psychoanalysis – technique of helping people with emotional problems based on Sigmund Freud’s theory of the unconscious mind

• Use techniques to help with restraining your ID (your drive) because your ID isn’t socially acceptable

Humanistic psychology – psychological view that human beings possess an innate tendency to improve and determine their lives by the decisions they make
• Similar to behaviorism
• Human agency – ability to determine what you want to be

Control theories – when humans are left alone they deviate from the norms

Neuro science perspective – A viewpoint in psychology that focuses on the nervous system in explaining behavior and mental processes

• How we feel impact how we behave and think

Medical model – using science to see all abnormal behavior as a manic disorder

Socio cultural perspective – theory of psychology that it is necessary to understand a person’s culture and other social influences to fully understand them

Biopsychosocial model – Biology and how your brain and body impact your moods

Attribution theory – a theory that focuses on tendency for individuals to infer the causes of other people’s behavior

Mental processes – private thoughts, emotions, feelings, and motives that others cannot directly observe

Behavior – observable and measurable human action

Cognition- our thinking

Topic -Different approaches in psychology

Biological approach – The approach to psychology in which behavior/ behavior disorders are seen as the result of physical processes, especially those related to the brain, hormones, and other biochemicals

• Genetics impact behavior and personality
• Using a biological approach and medicine to deal with psychological issues

Medical model – everything must have a medical reason for an issue or problem ( similar to biological approach)

Evolutionary approach – An approach to psychology that emphasizes the inherited adaptive aspects of behavior and mental processes

• Emphasizes how different species evolve differently which shapes their behavior, temperament, and mental processes

Psychodynamic approach – A view developed by Freud that emphasizes the interplay of unconscious mental process in determining human:
a) behavior
b) thoughts
c) feelings
d) cognition

• Ego prevents our innate drives (things we want but can’t have because it’s not proper in society) example: stealing

Behavioral approach – An approach to psychology emphasizing that human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned especially from rewards and punishment (learned behavior)

• Human behavior is associated with getting rewarded or punished. When you do something good you get rewarded, so that good behavior will be continued. (based on positive and negative reinforcement)
• Behavioral approach uses classical conditioning and conditioning
• Classical conditioning and operant conditioning

Cognitive approach – A way of looking at human behavior that emphasizes research on how the brain:

A. Takes in information
B. Creates perceptions (either good or bad perceptions)
C. Forms and determines memories (we remember the important things)
D. Processes information
E. Generates integrated patterns of action

Biopsych social model – the interaction between biology, psychology, and your social setting

Sports psychological approach – psychologists who explore relationships between athletic performance and psychological variables as motivation and emotion

• Behavior through motivation. your performance is strong when you’re motivated and therefore you can achieve your goals.

Environmental approach – psychologists who study the effects of the physical environment on behavior and mental processes

I. Social learning theory – we learn how to behave based on mimicking and observing people from our surroundings
II. Socialization process of human development – each stage of life we learn the values and behaviors that is associated and appropriate for our age
Socialization- a life-long process of developing potential and learning culture

Neuroscience approach – how the brain set up affects your behavior and mental processes
Example: brain damage affects how someone acts and their defficiencies (can’t speak, can’t walk, etc)

• Biological Psychology is similar to the neuroscience approach
• Biological psychology deals with biology, psychology, and philosophy

Positive psychology approach- a research that focuses on people’s positive experiences and characteristics such as happiness. Being positive promotes physical and mental health. Positive attitudes help people recover quicker physically and mentally

Topic-Levels of explanations

Biological level of explanation- addresses the influence on behavior of factors such as hormones, neurotransmitters, brain structure, and genetic inheritance

• Certain traits that you inherit can impact your behavior
• Our brain incorporates new information from our social environment which shapes how we act

Basic processes level of explanation- addresses the role of processes such as perception, cognition, and emotion that are common across individuals

• Explaining behavior through psychological reasoning

Person level of explanation- addresses individual differences between people, focusing on attributes such as intelligence and personality that combine basic psychological processes

• Introverts, extroverts, etc.
• Addresses personality- what makes you who you are?
• Addresses intelligence which is based on both nature and nurture

Sociocultural level of explanation- addresses the influence of other people and the cultural contest in shaping behavior and self esteem

• Positive core beliefs vs negative core beliefs:
both deal with person level of explanation (personality)
Positive core- takes negative criticism as a way to grow and be better
Negative core- escaping every time someone is negative towards you

Sigmund Freud- the controversial ideas of this famed theorist and therapist have influenced human self-understanding

John B. Watson- Watson championed psychology as the science of behavior and demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby who became famously known as “little Albert”
• He is a behaviorist that believes psychology should be seen as a science and refers to the scientific method

B.F. – A leading behaviorist. Skinner rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior

Charles Darwin- he argued that natural selection shapes behaviors and bodies

Neuroscience- how the body and brain enable emotion, memories, and sensory experiences

Evolutionary- how natural selection of traits promotes the survival of genes

1) Physical explanations of behavior- body, organs, brain, and body mechanisms affect behavior
2) Onto Genetic explanations of behavior – when genes, nutrition and experiences interact to determine your behavior
3) Evolutionary explanations of behavior- explains behavior through the way you were evolved (cats, dogs, and humans are all different)
4) Functional explanation of behavior- when you have a small isolated community, genetic mutations occur (genetic drift) ex: diseases can occur (tay-sachs)

Psychodynamic- how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
• Example: Unresolved thoughts in your head can keep you up at night because your mind isn’t satisfied

Counseling psychology- a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (school, work, marriage) and in achieving greater well being
• A form of applied psychology- applying what you learned to help people with their life decisions. You educate your client about options of what to do in their situations.

Applied psychology: same as counseling psychology
1) independent variable – not under a controlled research. Has a major impact of the object of the study
2) dependent variable- under a controlled research. Independent variable influences the dependent variable and manipulates it.
3) subject variable- the object is being studied
4) extraneous variable- the unexpected variable
It impacts the subject variable

Topic- Behavior Expression

Affect language- a subjective feeling or emotional tone often accompanied by bodily expressions that is noticeable to others

• using body language to express yourself (tiredness, upset)
• Facial expressions can show us how people feel, sometimes we communicate through body language

Behavior genetics- the study of individual differences in behavior that are attributable to differences in genetic make-up

• Behavior traits we inherit from our parents
• If an addicted behavior pattern runs in the family, you are likely to develop an addiction of something that gives you pleasure too. You are at higher risk of addiction if it runs in the family.
• According to this concept, behavior isn’t based on experience but rather based on your genetics
• However, nurturing- the way you are raised, can change the way they behave. nature(genetics) and nurture. it depends on both

Genetic paradigm- the approach to human behavior that focuses on both heritability of traits and complex interactions between genes and environment

• Paradigm shift- a new thing that changes the way we view things and act (could be a new device, a new school or class)

Behavior assessment- a sampling of ongoing cognition, feelings, and overt behavior in their situational context
• Certain behaviors are acceptable in certain situations

Overt behavior- behavior that is shown physically (we see it)
Covert behavior- hidden behavior, what goes on inside our heads

Good mental health- able to balance multiple things daily (social life, school, etc). you’re able to cope with everything in your life (school, work, family, friends)

Bad mental health- you’re not able to do more than one thing during the day, you can’t get through your routine. Any change will make it hard for you to cope and adjust

Sensation- detecting the signal in the environment
• 5 senses- Sight, taste, touching, smelling, feeling
• Each sense provides us with a sensation

Perception- the organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation
• You use your senses to form a mental representation and interpret something

Crystallization of symptoms- symptoms may be the same or similar to more than 1 illness which can cause people to be diagnosed with a wrong illness

Topic- History of psychology

Two important pre-existing trends in psychology:

1. Human behavior is a natural phenomenon – everyone behaves differently, society is what tells us the norms. Certain factors like culture are the reasons we behave a certain way
2. The question of epistemology
Epistemology – the study of the origins of knowledge and mental functioning and disorders. It is the knowledge of how mental disorders are caused, and how personality is formed.

Thomas Hobbes on psychology:

1. One of the first people to say that human behavior is a natural phenomenon
2. He believed that it is possible to have an actual science about human behavior
Hippocrates – he was the first to describe and analyze the causes of depression and anxiety disorders
David Hume – a philosopher who believed that human behavior is a natural phenomenon that should be studied scientifically (scientific method)
Titcheners method –using introspection to expose people to various stimuli and wanted them to describe their experience of the stimulus not the outward view

William James:
1. Functionalism – In terms of how your self-concept influences your behavior? If you have low self-esteem, etc.
2. Stream of consciousness- a sense of self awareness

A. James subject matter of psychology is consciousness
B. James goal of psychology – discover purpose and function of consciousness

John Watson:
1. Founder of behaviorism – he says our behavior is based on our free will
2. He was the first to work on the impact of observable behavior
3. Affective language shows how we feel (body language, facial expressions)

Thomas szas: He believed that mental illness was a myth or invalid. He believed that these people just have a problem coping with life and use mental illness as an excuse.

Johann weyer:
1. He believed that the mind is susceptible to sickness like the rest of the body
2. He is the founder of psychopathology – the mind can get sick just like the body can get sick

Benjamin rush: a pioneer who spread moral treatment for mental illness in the united states. people treated mental illness as a crime so Benjamin rush tried to spread better treatment for people with mental illness

Dorthea Dix: she spread moral treatment of mental illness in the U.S. as well. She also created state hospitals and invented the somatic perspective

Talcott Parsons: He is a sociologist
1. Founded Medical sociology – how society influences medical treatment
2. He created mardon hospitals

Topic – Theorists and Theories part 1

E.B Titchener- founder of structuralism

Structuralism – A theory that the structure of conscious experience can be understood by analyzing the basic elements of thoughts and sensations

• Structuralism is how your past experience shapes your behavior
• A relationship between the forces of a larger society with your experiences and that shapes your future actions

Gestalt Psychology- psychological perspective that emphasizes our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
• Focuses on the present and why we behave a certain way in the present not the future or past

Sigmund Freud:
i. Founder of psychoanalysis
ii. Came up with personality theory
iii. Fun fact: he was a cocaine addict

Psychoanalysis – Freuds theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts

o Super ego (society norms) regulates ego (your desires)

B.F. Skinner- developed the fundamental principles and techniques of operant conditioning

Operant conditioning- conditioning based on reward and punishment

Behaviorism- theory that psychology should only study observable behaviors not mental processes

Weber’s law- the just noticeable differences of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity
• The more you learn, the more you know
• The more you know yourself the better you will feel and cope with things

Feature integration theory – The idea that focused attention is not required to detect the individual features that comprise a stimulus but is required to bind those individual features together
• Example: If you’re stressed→ you can’t focus→ there’s a relationship between stress, focus, and concentration

Signal detection theory – a theory regarding how stimuli are detected under different conditions

Sensory processes – detecting and discriminating among different types and levels of energies
Ex: hearing or seeing a lot of things at once
• Things we see that we like→ makes us happy

Decision process- decisions influenced by the observed response bias
• You respond based on how you interpret the situation
• It is based on preference

Situational self-esteem – According to the situation, your behavior can be different. Ex: you act reserved when you’re in a place you’re not comfortable in
• Affects our behavior negatively or positively

Topic- Stimuli and how it effects behavior

Absolute threshold- the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
• Impacts how we behave 50% of the time
• We follow positive stimuli and stay away from negative stimuli
• Example: we are attracted to a good smell or pleasant sight

Difference threshold:
1. The smallest detectable difference between two stimuli – a slight change in the environment (or something else) can impact how you act
2. The minute you go from not being able to detect a stimulus to being able to detect a stimulus ex: we see something different or a change so our response or behavior changes as a result of that change.

Signal Detection theory:
1. A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) a mid background stimulation (noise) – focusing on the main points without getting bothered by outside interference
2. Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person’s experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness- how you pay attention despite the distractions around you. It is based on what is considered important to you

Gestalt principles of perceptions:
• Figure and ground- our perceptions of height, figures, and shapes are our perceptions of reality
• Similarity
• Congruity – do people look similar or different
• Continuity
• Closure – main focuses in a relationship, class, etc.
• Area symmetry the whole is more than the sum of his parts – look at things and people as a whole rather than in parts in order to understand a person completely. You are defined as a whole.
As a whole→personality, looks, unique features, etc.

Nativism- heredity provides individuals with inborn knowledge and abilities. We use this to reason.

Tabula Rasa- theory that says we are born as a blank state- everything we know is learned.

Drive-reduction theory: the need to accomplish a desire
1. The physiological need to create an aroused state that motivates an individual to satisfy his or her needs.
2. Ex: This theory sates that humans get thirsty and respond to this physical need by getting a drink to reduce the need.

Motivation- need and desire that energizes and directs behavior

o Rational choice approach falls under drive reduction theory. It is an approach we use in order to satisfy a need.

Motivation theories- drive-reduction theory and arousal theory

Arousal theory- the search for the right arousal level that energizes and directs behavior

Terror management theory – we are not immortals meaning eventually we will die
So we don’t have forever to achieve our goals. →do it now before it is too late, age terrorizes you into achieving your goals

James-Lauge theory- emotional experience is awareness of one’s Physiological response to an emotion- arousal stimulus
o It is a physical response to an emotional stimulus

Topic- Nervous system

Somatic nervous system- the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles
o Affects our behavior ex: if you have a stomach ache→you act moody or upset
Autonomic nervous system- the part of the nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart)
o Works automatically
o This doesn’t affect our mental processes or behavior
o Ex: cardiac arrest

Sympathetic nervous system- the division of the automatic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
o Ex: when you’re nervous→ you act a certain way (shaking, lacking eye contact)

Parasympathetic nervous system- the division of the automatic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

Cerebral cortex : part of the brain we can see
A. Frontal Lobes: the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead. Involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements. The frontal lobes gives us the ability to speak multiple languages and doing math.
B. Parietal Lobes: the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear. It includes the sensory cortex. (our senses shape how we respond and behave)
C. Occipital Lobes: The portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head. Includes visual areas which receive visual information from the opposite visual field (eyes)
o What you see visually impacts what you think or behave
D. Temporal Lobes: the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears. Includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear

Broca’s area- it directs the muscle movements involved in speech

Wernicke’s area- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression

Topic- Theories

Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson):

1. Discontinuous Development of eight stages- in age order. chronological development is mixed with cognitive development
2. First stage is based on basic trust versus mistrust, infants need to develop a sense of security – affects our life in our future stages in development
3. Grand theories- different theories that believe that what happens early in life determines your destiny (going through each stage properly)

Behaviorism (J.B. Watson and B.F Skinner)
1) Based on free will
2) Views directly observable events (observing behavior instead of predicting it)
3) Development of behavior takes place through classical and operant conditioning (operant conditioning-reward and punishment promotes or prevents behavior. Classical conditioning- your behavior is based on certain stimuli)
4) Emphasis on nurture
5) Continuous development
6) Emergent theories – based on social, biological, and psychological factors

Social learning theory (Albert Bandura)
• Emphasizes on role modeling
• Observational learning in development of behavior
• Social learning theory falls under mini theories- one particular aspect of one’s development shapes who you are
• Socialization (learning based on your social environment and age group) → A. Primary socialization – takes place in household usually with your parents B. secondary socialization- happens outside of the household C. Resocialization- relearning (continuous)

Emphasis on nurture

• It is continuous development (never stops developing)

Plagets cognitive development theory
• Based on infancy development and grand theories

1. Children are active thinkers, infants understand the world through sensory and motor experiences
2. Both nature and nurture
3. Discontinuous development
4. Determination – determines your destiny.

Ethology→ critical period:
• Study of animal behavior
• There is a critical period in one’s life for certain capacities to emerge
• Apart of mini theory
Sociocultural theory (vygotsky)
• Focused on how culture is transmitted to the next generation
• Both nature and nurture- based on our development and our surroundings
• Both continuous and discontinuous
• Considered an emergent theory
Ecological system theory (Brofenbrenner)
• Complex systems of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment
• Not specified whether its continuous or not
• Both nature and nurture
• Considered an emergent theory
Information processing approach and theory
• Observing and analyzing processes involved in perceiving and handling information – how we process information based on our interests
• Based on nature and nurture
• Continuous development- we’re always learning
• Considered a mini theory
Topic: Theories part 2

Psychoanalytic theory: individuals life consists of constant push-pull between the competing forces of ID, superego (information you obtain but don’t assimilate it it) and ego (behavior you assimilate)

Analytic theory- behavior is directed toward life and awareness, contains conscious and unconscious elements
• Analytic theory is related to psychoanalytic theory

Client centered-theory (Rojers)- therapy directed by client, the therapist provides empathy and feedback
• Focuses on the needs of a client rather than structures, theories, or giving the client guidance
• The client sets the tone and expresses his feelings

Behavior theory- how to change from maladaptive behavior to better behavior through learning
• Maladaptive behavior is negative and not proper behavior

Rational-emotive theory- 1. psychological tension is created when an activating
event (antecedent condition) occurs, and a client applies certain beliefs about the event 2. This leads to the consequences of emotional disruption

Existential theory: person’s greatest struggles are those of being versus nonbeing and meaningfulness versus meaninglessness
• How you feel about yourself are your biggest struggles (insecurities, interests)
• Feelings of Nonbeing and meaninglessness can lead to suicide
Psychodynamic theory- refers to the theories that emphasize role of unconscious
(negative or positive dreams)
• How your unconscious mind impacts your mental processes and behavior

Humanistic theory- theories that enhance positive evolving tree will in people
These theories include:
a. Client centered theory
b. Gestalt theory
c. Existential theory
Aaron Becks cognitive theory- holds that mental disorders may come about if one has negative views of oneself (I’m not good at anything), other people in the world (no one cares about others just themselves), and the future (things won’t ever get better)

Alfred Adler: Alfred Adler was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology

Jungian Psychology- psychologist from Switzerland
• He talks about archetypes- we shape how we behave based on how things appears to us (positive and negative archetypes)

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Bipolar disorder and mental health summary essay

Bipolar disorder and mental health
Manic depression from a subjective point of view is a mental illness characterized with fluctuations in moods resulting in unprecedented changes in behavior. It is termed bipolar owing to shifting variations of feelings of happiness and sadness or hopelessness and sluggishness amidst feelings of normalcy. Under this approach the condition can well be understood by looking into related terminologies that define it. Manic describes times when a victim of this condition feels overly excited and confident. At times these feelings are accompanied with irrational impulses that result in poor decision making. It is common for victims of this condition to experience delusions under the mania phase. Depression is the descriptive word elaborating moments when a bipolar victim is at an inter-phase of feelings of sadness.
Bipolar disorder looks simple and negligible although a majority of people today have been diagnosed with this condition. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has it classified among its diagnostic categories. These medical advancements are resulting in conflicting views from medical practitioners and critics. Clinicians heavily rely on the DSM5 to render treatment and prognosis of bipolar disorder while its critics view it as a subjective practice towards the condition. It is challenging to distinct bipolar disorder from other stress related conditions because a number of similarities cut across both conditions.
A number of issues as it relates to mental healthcare and bipolar disorder are still prevalent and unresolved today. It is challenging to approach bipolar disorder from a subjective approach without inculcating genetic components of the victim. There have been discoveries on the genetic risk loci which are shading light into a number of mental disorders including bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder should not be looked at as a monolithic condition which can be diagnosed and treated under a single key or approach. This condition should be managed from both the psychological pharmacological and social interventions.

Format: APA 6th edition
Length: 5 pages, excluding title and reference pages
References in the last 5 years

Type of service: Academic paper writing

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Subject: nursing

Pages / words: 5 / 1400

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Academic level: Undergraduate

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