Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is also known as chronic obstructive lung disease and chronic obstructive airway disease, among others. It is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by chronically poor airflow. It typically worsens over time. The main symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, and sputum production. Most people with chronic bronchitis have COPD.

Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with a number of other factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role.  In the developing world, one of the common sources of air pollution is from poorly vented cooking and heating fires. Long-term exposure to these irritant causes an inflammatory response in the lungs resulting in narrowing of the small airways and the breakdown of lung tissue known as emphysema.

COPD can be prevented by reducing exposure to the known causes. This includes efforts to decrease rates of smoking and to improve indoor and outdoor air quality. COPD treatments include; quitting smoking, vaccinations, rehabilitation, and often inhaled bronchodilators and steroids. Some people may benefit from long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

In those who have periods of acute worsening, increased use of medicines and hospitalization may be needed. Worldwide, COPD affects 329 million people or nearly 5% of the population. In 2012, it ranked as the third-leading cause of death, killing over 3 million people. The number of deaths is projected to increase due to higher smoking rates and an aging population in many countries.

History of autism essay

Autism spectrum disorder

Autism is a general term for a group of complex disorders of brain development. These disorders are characterized by difficulties in social interaction, both verbal and non verbal communication and repetitive behaviors.

It has its roots in very early brain development. Obvious signs of autism appear between the ages of 2 and 3. Early diagnosis is very important since intervention through therapy can improve the outcome.

According to statistics, 1 in 68 American children suffer from autism, a ten-fold increase in prevalence in 40 years. This increase is accredited to widespread awareness and improved diagnosis.

Studies also show that autism is four to five times more common among boys than girls. An estimated 1 out of 42 boys and 1 in 189 girls are diagnosed with autism in the United States. Big difference right?

Autism affects over 2 million individuals in the U.S. and tens of millions worldwide. Only recently, scientists discovered that there is no one cause of autism. Rare gene changes and mutations are associated with autism. Most cases of autism, however, appear to be caused by a combination of risk genes and environmental factors surrounding brain growth.

Some genetic causes include; advanced parental age of both parents, maternal illness during pregnancy, difficulties during birth especially those that deprive the baby of oxygen. A growing body of research suggests that women can reduce risk of having a child with autism by taking prenatal vitamins containing folic acid before and after conception.

Each individual with autism is unique, have exceptional abilities in visual skills, music, art and academic skills. Others have disability and cannot live independently. Families can attest to the fact that raising an autistic child needs lots of care but in the end, love counts more than anything. It is not the end of the world.

How to prevent Insomnia essay

Causes and effects of INSOMNIA

It is a sleep disorder that is characterized by difficulty falling asleep and or staying asleep. Other symptoms may be waking up often during the night, having trouble falling back asleep, waking up too early in the morning or feeling too tired upon waking up. These may sound normal to many since many people count sheep or even beats to a certain song so as to lull themselves to sleep.

There are two types of insomnia:

(a) Primary; which is a type of insomnia that is not associated with any other health condition and

(b) Secondary; this type of insomnia is associated with other health conditions such as asthma. The determination of a type of insomnia also depends on the amount of time it lasts. Short term insomnia is also known as acute insomnia and is not as serious as chronic insomnia which lasts long.

Causes of insomnia may vary from one individual to another but have roots based on the psychological state of a human being. Such causes include: emotional/ physical discomfort; probably due to one’s surroundings or what one is currently going through in his/her life, environmental factors when one is asleep e.g. light or noise may definitely affect one’s sleep since the brain is alert, medications for example those used in the treatment of allergies or colds and interferences in normal sleep schedule such as change from night shift to a day shift or jet lag after travel by airplane.

Chronic insomnia has its own list of causes: –

  • Depression
  • Chronic stress
  • Pain/discomfort at night

30% to 50% of the general population has insomnia with 10% suffering from chronic insomnia. Simple treatments for insomnia vary from proper sleeping habits to maintaining a sleeping schedule. There are also methods such as self-hypnosis which helps the mind to relax.

Taking the right meals right before you sleep and avoiding consumption of fluids as well as nicotine and caffeine before going to bed promotes good sleep. Those who have free time during the day should limit the time they spend during naps. Naps should last a maximum of 15 minutes during the day, experts say.

There are also available insomnia medications for example Ramelteon (Rozerem) which promotes the onset of sleep. This is a prescription drug which individuals should ensure to get from their doctors. However there are over the counter drugs available in pharmacies for example diphenhyndramine (Benandryl) that induces drowsiness but does not improve sleep and should not be used to treat chronic insomnia. This drug is an antihistamine with sedative properties.

Studies have shown that insomnia is a common disorder in many people in the US and UK and therefore individuals should get checked out if and when symptoms present themselves. Sleep being very important, we cannot afford to have a sleepless nation if we want good quality of work and service.

Bipolar patient case study


It is a serious mental illness in which common emotions become intensely magnified. This sudden change in moods is unpredictable. Mood swings range from lows of depression to highs of mania. Bipolar is categorized into bipolar I and II as well as Cyclothymic disorder.

Their symptoms may be similar in all the three cases but vary from one individual to another. Symptoms include: euphoria, inflated self-esteem, and poor judgment, rapid speech, racing thoughts, aggressive behavior, agitation/imitation and increased physical activity.

About 4.4% of people are affected in the United States. It affects approximately 5.7 million American adults or 2.6% of the population aged 18 and older in a given year. The median age of onset for bipolar is 25 years. Doctors advise that in case of any symptoms, no matter the magnitude, the affected should visit their doctors or mental health provider.

Bipolar has led to depression cases in the U.S. with the greatest effect being feelings of suicide as well as suicide attempts. In 2006 33,000 individuals died as a result of suicide the highest majority being males.

However females have not been spared since majority are actually saved from the act according to reports. Awareness about the disorder has not yet been properly spread since the loss of people through death is still evident.

Bipolar disorder is treatable through the practice of following routines as well as psychotherapy. In the end of it all, those suffering from this disorder as just as normal as we are they may just be more sensitive.

China healthcare system pros and cons


China is currently undertaking reform of its health-care system. This is to particularly make it affordable to the poor in the Chinese population. Under the New Rural Co-operative Medical Care System (NRCMCS) the annual cost of medical coverage is 50 yuan (US$ 7) per person.

20 yuan in given by the central government, another 20 yuan by the provincial government and the remaining 10 yuan by the patient. As of September 2007, about 685 million people had signed up.

In 2005 China had about 1,938,000 physicians and about 3,074,000 hospital beds. However, about 80% of the health and medical care services are concentrated in the cities, and timely medical care is not available to more than 100 million people in rural areas. Efforts have been made to increase number of village clinics in the rural areas to improve health care services.

Traditional medicine today continues alongside Western medicine. Traditional physicians undergo professional training and offer their services before one seeks medical attention or after.

The two groups of physicians however differ in opinions as well as techniques. This has led to lack of cooperation between the two. One has to make a decision whether to undergo western treatment or traditional treatment.

Traditional treatments include: herbal treatments, acupuncture, acupressure and moxibustion. These are used to treat ailments and conditions as well. Conditions treated include; appendicitis, pancreatitis and gallstones.

There is said to be a shortage of doctors and nurses in China. More doctors are being trained but they aim to leave the countryside in favor of the cities leaving significant shortages in rural areas. When all negative factors are dealt with in china, I believe it will emerge the best globally in provision of health care.

United kingdom healthcare system overview


This is a devolved matter meaning England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales each have their own systems of private and publicly funded healthcare. Each region has different policies and priorities.

Each country also provides public healthcare to United Kingdom’s permanent residents that is free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. Each also has a private healthcare sector that is smaller than the public sector with provision of private healthcare acquired by direct payment by customer or through private healthcare insurance.

The World Health Organization in 2000 ranked the provision of healthcare in the U.K. as 15th best in Europe and 18th in the world. U.K. performed best overall and best in many categories when this report was updated in 2014, when comparisons were extended to include 11 countries.

8.4% of United Kingdom’s gross domestic product comes from healthcare. Most healthcare is provided by the National Health Service which accounts for most of the Department of Health’s budget (£98.6 billion in 2008/09). The actual delivery of healthcare services is managed by ten Strategic Health Authorities.

The National Health Service constitution covers the rights and obligations of patients and staff, many of which are legally enforceable. The National Health Service has a high level of popular public support within the country. It uses General practitioners to provide primary healthcare and to make referrals to further services as necessary.

Opinions however differ among beneficiaries whereby a higher percentage is seen to appreciate the Service’s role in general and not their individual/local provider. This may imply that there is a gap in delivery of services in the grassroots.

Pharmacies (other than those within hospitals) are privately owned but have contracts with the relevant health service to supply prescription drugs. All aspects of healthcare have been put into consideration by the government and therefore the public is healthier than ever.

Aims of health promotion

Health promotion aims (primary, secondary and tertiary)

Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention activities, or promoting health, early disease detection and treatment of established disease are crucial parts of a successful clinic practice.

Primary prevention measures include activities that help avoid a given health care problem. Examples include: passive and active immunization against disease as well as health protecting education and counseling promoting the use of automobile passenger restraints and bicycle helmets.

Since successful primary prevention helps avoid the suffering, cost and burden associated with diseases, it is typically considered the most cost-effective form of health care.

Secondary prevention measures are those that identify and treat asymptomatic persons who have already developed risk factors or preclinical disease but in whom the condition is not clinically apparent.

These activities are focused on early case findings of asymptomatic disease that occurs commonly and has significant risk for negative outcome without treatment.

Screening tests are examples of secondary prevention activities, as these are done on those without clinical presentation of disease that has a significant latency period such as breast and prostate cancer. With early case finding, the natural history of disease or how the course of an illness unfolds over time without treatment can often be altered to maximize well-being and minimize suffering.

Tertiary prevention activities involve that care of established disease, with attempts made to restore to highest function, minimize the negative effects of diseases and prevent any complications that may arise as a result.

Since the disease is now established, primary prevention activities may have been unsuccessful. Early detection through secondary prevention may have minimized the impact of the disease.

Importance of good health care systems in Carolina


This healthcare system is a network of hospitals, freestanding emergency departments, urgent cares and practices, locate throughout North and South Carolina. About 90% of the hospitals affiliated with the system are located within a 75 mile radius of Carolina’s Medical Centre in Charlotte, North Carolina.

The system’s headquarters and the flagship hospital, Carolina’s Medical Centre is located in the Dilworth and Myers Park areas of Charlotte. They have over 60,000 employees.

These health care systems are based in Charlotte, but its operations are not limited to Charlotte. The network operates eight hospitals in the area and four of them are considered by many to comprise 90% of Carolina’s HealthCare System’s operations. Main facilities are such as; Carolina’s Medical Centre-Mercy, Levine Children’s Hospital, Carolina’s Medical Centre-Union and Carolina’s Medical Centre-University among many more.

Most of these HealthCare centres some of which are Urgent Care centres are open from 8:00am to 8:00pm, seven days a week (except Thanksgiving and Christmas). Under Carolina’s HealthCare Systems, we also have rehabilitation facilities such as: Carolina’s Rehabilitation-Mount Holly (located in Mount Holly) and Roper Rehabilitation Hospital (located at Roper Hospital Campus in Charleston).

There is also a 66 bed inpatient and outpatient behavioral health facility on Randolph Road in Charlotte in partnership with Mecklenburg County. Outpatient services include child, adolescent and adult Partial Hospitalization Programs.

The service offered by these facilities run even beyond offering medical care as they also offer research facilities and schools of nursing.

Men’s health vs women’s health and the differences in cancer statistics


Men and women suffer from different types of cancers for example breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men .the intensity of these cancers is however similar since despite gender differences, they both still have to undergo chemotherapy which helps in managing the sickness.

These types of cancers listed above do not discriminate based on race. Both the white and the black Americans are at the risk of getting them. In men, bladder cancer is common among the white and cancer of the mouth and throat is common for the black population.

Some percentage of the male population may also end up getting breast cancer. Though it is common for women than men, it is not entirely impossible for men to suffer from it.

Cancer has generally led to the decline in health for both men and women. Those who are lucky enough to be stable financially can acquire unlimited healthcare as compared to the less fortunate individuals.

Luckily, there are many organizations and cancer support groups that provide healthcare for cheaper prices while others free of charge to the poor cancer patients.

Cancer unlike other diseases do not o away immediately after starting treatment. The patient has to practice patience by sticking to their drugs as well as therapy sessions.

Generally, cancer has led to a decrease in all types of health be it mental, physical or sexual. This is however not a death sentence and there are very many cancer survivors out there.


Review of Fresenius medical care

This is a German company that specializes in the production of medical supplies, primarily to facilitate or aid renal dialysis. 31 percent of it is owned by the health care company Fresenius.

The company was formed in 1996 from the merger of Fresenius Worldwide Dialysis, then a division of Fresenius, and American company National Medical Care. This sector is very complex, and has many different divisions, each with a number of plants.

Fresenius Medical Care operates more than 40 production sites in all continents. Its largest plants in terms of production output are in the U.S., Germany and Japan. These plants are categorized as large and small with 25 large facilities and 15 small ones worldwide which cater to local demand for dialysis products.

Plants that fall under the concentrates division, manufacture finished products from raw materials, such as sodium chloride, dextrose, and magnesium, to name a few.

Fresenius Medical Care manufactures a variety of durable medical devices used in the treatment of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Devices include; Hemodialysis Machines, Peritoneal Dialysis Machines, Granuflo Concentrate Mixing Tanks and monitoring devices including the Crit-line device.

The dialysis machines are manufactured in one of two plants to serve the globe. These plants are located in Schweinfurt, Germany and Concord, California. Crit-line devices are manufactured in Kaysville, Utah.