Whether you hire your own employees or independent contractors, you will need to have a solid understanding of federal and state labor laws covering everything from benefits and wages to discrimination and harassment.
Employment law governs the rights and duties between employers and workers. These rules are primarily designed to keep workers safe and make sure they are treated fairly, although laws are in place to protect employers’ interests as well. A particular employment relationship may also be governed by contract.
American labor laws trace back to public outcry against the oppressive practices of the industrial revolution. In the 60s and 70s, Congress acted to prohibit discrimination and unsafe work conditions. Current issues involve employee healthcare and equal pay for both the men and women.
Many of the employment disputes that result in litigation deal with “wage and hour” violations. Federal law establishes baseline rules with respect to these issues, and then states are free to pass laws providing additional protections.
Wage and hour laws also regulate overtime pay. The federal government does not place limits on the number of hours adults may work per week, but after 40 hours time, one must be paid. Rules exist to control the hours and working conditions for workers under age 18.
Discrimination in the workplace is another basis for many employment law cases. The constitution makes it clear that it is illegal to treat workers differently based on ethnicity, religious beliefs, gender, age, or disability.
These and other laws have made it possible for work to occur since there are lines that should not be crossed and therefore conditions are kept fair and equal for all.
ARIZONA STATEHOOD AND CONSTITUTION
The Constitution of the State of Arizona is the governing document and framework for the U.S. state of Arizona. The current constitution is the first and the only adopted by the state of Arizona.
The Arizona Territory was authorized to hold a constitutional convention in 1910 at which the constitution was drafted and submitted to Congress. The original constitution was approved by Congress, however subsequently vetoed by President William H. Taft on his objections concerning the recalling of judges.
The constitution was amended by the constitutional convention removing the recalling of judges and resubmitted upon which President Taft approved Arizona’s statehood as the 48th state on February 14, 1912.
Fairly quickly after Arizona became a state, the state legislature approved a constitutional amendment which restored the ability to recall judges, which was approved in the 1912 general election.
The Arizona Constitution is divided into a preamble and 30 articles, numbered 1-6, 6.1, 7-22, and 25-30, with articles 23 and 24 having been repealed. Currently, the state of Arizona considers Article 11 of the constitution unconstitutional and has therefore ruled it out.
In 1863 Arizona was organized as a separate territory, with its first, temporary capital at Fort Whipple. Prescott became the capital in 1865.
The country’s diversity in terms of the many cultures and communities that are found there as well as many economic activities such as mining have facilitated and strengthened statehood not forgetting the able leaders in the region that ensure that all but prosperity is encouraged.
JP MORGAN CASE
The JPMorgan Chase and Company is among the unlucky companies in the United States that have been forced to dish out loads of cash to settle cases as well in compensation of the affected parties. It is an American banking and financial services holding company as well as the largest bank in the United States.
P. Morgan Chase forked out $23 billion to cover costs and expenses from its pending legal and regulatory woes. In another situation, the company was required to pay about $2 billion to settle a case involving criminal charges where the bank had turned a blind eye to the activities carried out by Bernard L. Madoff.
The bank faced two felony violations of the Bank Secrecy Act, a federal law that requires banks to alert authorities to suspicious activity. The money was to be directed to Mr. Madoff’s victims. The bank also agreed to pay $350 million to the Office of the Controller of the Currency. All this was brought about by money laundering activities in the bank which is illegal in the United States.
That however is not all for JP Morgan. It settled the latest in a chain of legal claims on Tuesday after agreeing to pay $614 million to the U.S. government and admitted that it defrauded federal agencies by underwriting sub-standard mortgage loans. It approved thousands of insured loans that were not eligible for insurance by the Federal Housing Administration for more than a decade.
In another recent legal claim, the company agreed to pay $1.45 million to settle 4 year old allegations by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that the bank had maintained a sexually hostile environment for women in a mortgage centre in Ohio. Saying that JPMorgan Chase and Co. is unlucky is clearly an understatement.
Conflict resolution in the workplace
Colleagues in the workplace disagree on different issues which arise daily in the workplace. The senior management can also strife with their subordinates making the working environment unbearable and failure of them to work harmoniously and together towards achieving the goals of the company. Workers are however bound to disagree and its completely normal as everyone has their own way of way of doing things and will also differ due to their different beliefs as they come from diverse backgrounds. They can also occur due to the different interests and values of each individual, competition for the limited resources in order to effectively do their jobs, poor communication and poor performance especially by some members of the team who are deemed slow or incompetent.
Some people may choose to walk away from the conflict while others may decide to tackle them head on. Some may decide to hide from the problem by avoiding it with the hope that the conflict will go away. Others may decide to collaborate and address the problem so as to find a mutually benefitting solution. Others may compromise by finding a middle ground with the believe that when you give little there is something to be gained in return. Others will decide to compete with their ‘rival’ while others will try to be accommodative by giving up on their own needs and wishes just to please the other party.
The different techniques which can be used to effectively end or minimize these conflicts include clearly articulating the cause of the conflict while openly acknowledging the different opinions of both parties. This will help in coming up with a solution that will mutually benefit both parties despite their differences.
Make clear reasons as to why the conflict should be ended. With the conflict in the way the friction between the coworkers will affect their output as there is lack of harmony between their efforts. A successful company is usually as a result of the good relationship between the employees. A clear strategy of how the conflict will be dealt with should be clearly stipulated and communicated.
Conflicts should be dealt face-t-face instead of forwarded memos and emails. This is because face-to-face interaction will help in instant clarification and communication of the misunderstanding between the two parties. During resolution, ensure that you stick to the issue at hand and avoid deviating. Address specific behaviors and situations instead of name calling if change is to be realized.
Ensure that you take enough time to work out the differences. If you feel that a solution will not be found immediately ask for timeout if necessary and resume when you feel that the time is right. This is because emotions are bound to interfere with arriving at a productive resolution.