Pineoblastoma is one of several different types of tumors that arise in the area of the pineal gland, requiring different therapies. The exact diagnosis is critical for choosing the correct therapy.

Pineal tumors typically present with hydrocephalus, a buildup of fluid pressure within the brain. When it comes to identifying this particular disease, there are a number of tests that can be carried out but the most efficient and most approved method is the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain.

It will show the location, the size and the shape of the tumor. In the last 20 years, magnetic resonance imaging has proved to be the most informative imaging procedure for determining the anatomical localization of the mass, its relationship to adjacent vascular structures, and its spread by either direct invasion or subarachnoid dissemination.

Both CT scans and MRIs however lack specificity as to the histological nature of the tumor. It may however be popular for being highly accurate in determining the presence of a pineal region mass. New in the diagnostic field is magnetic resonance spectroscopy that has the role of evaluating pineal region tumors.

It is currently relatively unknown but indeed promising. When it comes to matters of determining the nature and position of the tumor, the use of MRI to do this is clearly the best there is.

MYXEDEMA symptoms and treatment essay


Myxedema is used to describe a dermatological change that can occur in hypothyroidism, and some forms of hyperthyroidism. It is known to occur in various forms of hypothyroidism, and also in Graves’ disease. It is more common in women than in men.

Myxedema describes a specific form of cutaneous and dermal edema secondary to increased deposition of connective tissue components. These include: glycosaminoglycans, hyahironic acid and other mucopolysaccharides.

Myxedema coma: a loss of brain functions as a result of severe, longstanding low level of thyroid hormone in the blood. Considered a life threatening complication of hypothyroidism and represents the far more serious side of the spectrum of thyroid disease.

It is a condition marked by thickening and swelling of the skin caused by the thyroid gland. The function of the thyroid hormones is to regulate your metabolism.

Symptoms associated with underactive thyroid/hypothyroidism are:

  1. Weight gain
  2. Fatigue
  3. Depression
  4. Cold sensitivity

Hypothyroidism is common on women over 50 years. It can be caused by a viral infection, certain medications, radiation exposure, and autoimmune disease, inherited or congenital disorders. Myxedema occurs more frequently when hypothyroidism is left untreated.

Treatment is done using Thyroid replacement hormones. These medications are effective in eliminating the symptoms that accompany Myxedema and hypothyroidism. One should seek medical attention if they have:

  • Very low body temperature
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Low blood sugar
  • Difficulty thinking clearly

What are the six factors that contribute to homeostatic imbalances?


Homeostatic imbalance occurs when there is a condition of disequilibrium in the body’s internal environment due to an interruption in the interplay of the body’s regulatory processes. It can be caused by an external disruption, such as a hot day, that can result in the loss of body fluids and the minerals they contain.

It can also be caused by an internal disruption, such as a fall in blood glucose levels if you forget to eat breakfast, or a psychological disruption such as stress. This results in an unstable internal environment that increases the risk of illness. It is responsible for many diseases and physical changes in old age.

Homeostasis can also be disturbed when certain pathological situations are present in the body and overwhelm the controls and mechanisms that have been behaving in a healthy and life-sustaining manner.

The stability of the homeostatic mechanism is achieved, for the most part, by a series of mechanisms that balance the input and output of signals, chemicals and fluids. Inefficiencies in homeostatic balance are the main culprit in normal aging signs for example: breakdown of skin, the dulling of mental processes, and the decreased ability of the person to perform physical activity.

Diseases such as diabetes and gout are such that develop due to this imbalance and need medical intervention to correct them. The common condition of dehydration is also attributed to homeostatic imbalance. It is treated simply by introducing electrolyte-rich fluids back into the system to reestablish homeostasis.

Issues of homeostatic imbalances are common but can be corrected through taking necessary meals that are nutritious and balanced.

Patient safety nursing essay


Nurses are as important as the doctors in any given hospital. They provide and serve as communication liaison between patients and other medical personnel.

They must be aware of the quality, efficiency and safety of quality they provide, and also be accountable for it. It is the role of every nurse to ensure that their patients are receiving as much attention and help as they want.

Clinical risks must be minimized by making sure that the nurses possess the necessary competencies to undertake their roles. One has to go through nursing school so as to finally become qualified and certified nurses.

Clinicians have been trained on how to use technology to carry out practices that technology can make safer. Nurses should be caring, compassionate and have a commitment to helping people. Nurses in clinical practices are involved in patient care including:

  1. Obtaining blood samples
  2. Minor and complex wound management, including leg ulcers
  3. Travel health advice and vaccinations
  4. Family planning and women’s health including cervical smears
  5. Sexual health services
  6. Men’s health screening

When it comes to safety in the practice, nurses are the safety net, they are the ones available all the time to catch medication errors, catching patient falls, recognizing when a patient needs something and such.

Nursing comes from the heart. The relationship nurses make with their patients makes them complete. They become friends and share a lot during that period they are in hospital. This I believe is among the most fulfilling of professions, don’t you?

What does a refugee nurse do in Australia

Health conditions of refugees in Australia and role of nurses

The Refugee Health Nurse Program (RHNP) began in 2005 in response to the poor and complex health issues of arriving refugees. It aims to:-

  • Increase refugee access to primary health services.
  • Improve the response of health services to refugees’ needs.
  • Enable individuals, families and refugee communities to improve their health and wellbeing.

Australia currently accepts over 13000 refugees each year. These are among the most vulnerable people in the world. They may suffer from diseases and conditions rarely seen in Australia, including infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, syphilis and fungal skin infections. They may have nutritional problems relating to Vitamin A, Vitamin D or Iron deficiency.

However, obtaining an accurate overview of the health service needs of refugees and asylum seekers is difficult, hence the challenge in providing the health services they require so urgently. This is because the refugees have suffered culturally.

Practice nurses provide health care for refugees who have arrived through the Refugee and Humanitarian Program or for Asylum Seekers who have obtained visas with associated rights.

Refugees and asylum seekers in Australia often have complex physical and psychological health care needs. Primary health care service provision for refugees and particularly for Medicare is challenging.

Australia is in great need of new models of primary health care that can provide critical services for refugees and asylum seekers.

What does a registered nurse do

How long does it take to become a registered nurse

Registered nurses provide medical care, education and emotional support to patients. Employment for nurses is expected to increase by 26% from 2010 to 2020, which is a faster growth rate than most jobs.

This is due to the fact that being a nurse us among one of the most fulfilling professions in the field of work and it comes with a lot of rewards in terms of forming friendships with the patients and their families as well as brightening up the lives of many in the wards.

The process of becoming a registered nurse begins in High School where one makes the decision to follow this path. The most important things to do while still in high school is to pay attention to your performance, skill and interest in science courses like biology, physiology, and chemistry. The way you perform in these types of courses will help determine whether a career in medicine is right for you.

There are three was to become a registered nurse; obtaining a bachelor’s degree in nursing (BSN) that takes four years to complete and includes more than training in social sciences than other nursing programs, completing  an associate’s degree in nursing (ASN) which takes two to three years and finally by getting a diploma from an accredited nursing program.

After this, you will be required to take the National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN). This test is the nationally recognized licensing exam for registered nurses. You will need to have completed one of the three types of nursing programs before you can be eligible to enroll for these examinations.

To enroll for the test, you will need to have completed the proper educational requirements and provide documentation that shows that you are a U.S. citizen.

Importance of ethics in nursing profession


The nursing profession requires the nurses to observe certain rules and codes of conduct so as to prevent any issues that may arise as a result of either neglect or ignorance to mention a few. Although much of nursing ethics can appear similar to medical ethics, there are some factors that differentiate the two.

Nurses focus on care and nurture, rather than cure of illness resulting in distinctive ethics. Furthermore, nursing ethics emphasize the ethics of everyday practice rather than moral dilemmas. Nursing ethics is more concerned with developing the caring relationship than broader principles, such as justice.

Nurses seek to defend the dignity of those in their care. Being able to respond to the vulnerability of patients in a way that provides dignifying care is a key concept in the field. In terms of standard ethical theory, respecting dignity can also be aligned with having a respect for people and their autonomous choices.

People are then enabled to make decisions about their own treatment. Amongst other things this grounds the practice of informed consent that should be respected by the nurse. Much of the debate lies in the discussion of cases where people are unable to make choices about their own treatment due to being incapacitated or having a mental illness that affects their judgement.

Ethics in nursing profession encourage and enable the nurse to endeavor to practice in an ethical way. Unfortunately, this key outcome in nursing practice is sometimes challenged by resource, policy or environmental constraints in the practice area, which can lead to moral distress.

Nursing as a career essay

Reasons to become a nurse essay

Nursing is one of the most exciting and in-demand jobs in the world today. Nurses work to promote health, prevent diseases and help patients to cope with illness.

They are advocates and health educators for patients, families and communities. When providing direct patient care, they observe, assess and record patient symptoms, reactions and progress.

Nurses collaborate with physicians in the performance of treatments and examinations, the administration of medications and the provision of direct patient care in convalescence and rehabilitation. Nurses work in an environment that is constantly changing to provide the best possible care for patients.

They are continuously learning about the latest technology and medication as well as considering the evidence that their nursing practice is based upon. Nurses are much more skilled at interacting with patients since most of their time is spent face-to-face with the patients than doctors.

Nurses must be particularly skilled at interacting with patients, putting them at ease, and assisting them in their recovery. It is often said that physicians cure, nurses care.

Nursing careers offer a wide variety of roles and a broad scope of responsibility. One has to have acquired a recognized degree or diploma in nursing from recognized institutions to become a certified and registered nurse.

If you love helping others, have a genuine interest in the medical field and want to work as an integral member of a healthcare team, nursing may be a great career choice for you.

Hypertension in adults causes, stages and treatment guidelines

Hypertension in adults causes

Hypertension is associated with a wide-range of cardiovascular and end-organ diseases. It is a frequent finding among patients in primary care. However, the ideal management of hypertension continues to be debated.

Blood pressure is a very important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney disease and, when appropriate, clinicians should consider starting treatment in patients with hypertension, regardless of their overall cardiovascular risk.

It is recommended that home measurement of blood pressure should ideally be offered to all patients suspected of having hypertension to confirm a diagnosis. Hypertension is progressive and management will require multiple medicines to achieve blood pressure targets and reduce overall cardiovascular risk.

Hypertension is a risk factor for many conditions including stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, kidney disease and cognitive decline. It is described as a silent killer because it is insidious, chronic and progressive.

Luckily, there are cardiovascular risk assessment tools that may substantially underestimate the lifetime risk in younger adults when blood pressure is the only significant risk factor. This is because short-term risk assessment is powerfully influenced by age.

The presence of end organ damage is an important factor when making treatment decisions in patients when traditional risk scores do not indicate a high overall cardiovascular risk.

When it comes to spotting the existence of hypertension, regular blood tests are quite necessary in order to get either positive or negative results for hypertension. The earlier the blood tests are conducted, the better.

FILIAL THERAPY: How it is done and Its Benefits

How FILIAL THERAPY is done and its Benefits

          Filial therapy (FT) derived from the Latin word filios or filias meaning sons and daughters, translated to English to mean parent-child.

Filial therapy also known as child relationship enhancement  was developed in the 1960s  by famous psychologists Bernard and Louise guerney to improve parent-child relationships by allowing the child to get concentrated attention from the parent therefore reducing anxiety, miscommunicating behavior and stress in the child. It is mostly used for children between the ages of 2 and 12 who need the parental attention the most to develop strong emotional bonds and cub anxiety disorders.

Filial therapy usually take 3-6months to complete and there are also follow-up sessions by the therapist. It may be structured in different ways to meet different circumstances. It may be a group therapy with many parents and many children and it may also be individual a just a parent and their child. The initial stage of the therapy entails the parent being taught the basic skills and practicing them severally before they can do them with the child. This initial introduction may take 3-4 weeks. The parent after will start practicing these skills with their child the same time, on the same day and the same place every week. The therapist will once in a while join and the parent and the therapist, while the child is take care of by another adult, will talk about how the therapist is paying keep interest in the positive points and maybe a few difficulties and/ or questions. The therapy continues for as long as necessary or for as long as the child wants.

Filial therapy’s main objectives include but not limited to:

  • Improve parenting skills.
  • Reduce child anxiety and stress symptoms
  • Strengthen the parent-child bond and relationship
  • Improve the child’s self- esteem
  • Parent learns to set specific limits
  • Results in an environment where the young-one starts to feel loved and appreciated
  • The child begins to express themselves in a social acceptable manner
  • Promotes healing from past traumas
  • Allows the children to express their feelings.

Every therapist performing FFT should know that:

-Empathy is very critical for the growth and change of the child. They should be trained to offer empathy to both the adult and child alike. The therapist would never condone a parent  spanking the child but they should be more concerned about the feelings of frustration that caused the parent to behave that way. This understanding of the parent’s feelings will be more effective in changing the parent and the therapy will therefore be more efficient.

– The whole family should be involved as many times as possible. Both parents should be involved and should observe each other’s sessions and feedback. Reluctant parents should be advised on the positive impact their involvement will have on the child.

-In the early stages the therapist should provide live supervision for the parent because most parents don’t know how to be patient as the therapy goes on and will learn a new skill once and then say it didn’t work.

– The therapist should first explain the skill, demonstrate it, watch it implemented then ask for the feedback.

– The parent(s) are partners not subjects of the therapy.

To conclude filial therapy is very important and when do properly and attentively it works. It is most crucial for children who have undergone traumatic experiences like loss of a parent, physical abuse, fighting between their parents and disasters that contributed to loss of a home. Children who are not able to properly express their feelings should also have the therapy.