Causes of Stress on College Students and how to deal with it

Stress on College Students

Introduction

It is un- debatable that most college students spend their time on campuses stressed out. Balancing between studies, CATs, assignments, work, finances, friends, girlfriends/boyfriends and examinations can be stressing for anyone especially because colleges have become more and more competitive and expensive. So what is stress really? Stress is a form of the body’s reaction to change. It is non- specific. It can also be defined as the unexpected response to unexpected events a fight or run sort of reaction. Any situation that an individual finds threatening, causes a lot of pressure or is difficult to cope with can be a potential cause of stress. Factors that cause stress are called stressors and can either be internal or external. Internal stressors are feelings that cause one to feel stressed such as imagination, thoughts memory, dietary needs, attitudes and feelings such as anger or fear while external stressors are factor in our environment that cause stress which may include major life changes like loss of a person or a home or loss of financial stability and pain from injury. This paper will focus on the causes and effects of stress on the college students and the economy.

In a study of lab rats reaction to stress Hans (1936) found that when exposed to a continuous environment with stressors such as loud noise, extreme physical activity, extreme heat or cold and blaring light, the lab rats were found to have physical conditions found in humans such as stroke, kidney disease, stomach ulcers and heart attacks. This goes to show that stress can be caused by many independent factors that may or may not be related. Anything can cause stress, like cancer, it has no definite source and can be caused by everything. It is induced by factors both general and specific. However, many specific causes can lead to undesirable stress levels. So what causes stress to college students? In his study of college students James (2003) found that the stress in college students is mainly caused by these factors:

First were the academic problems and time constraints. Academic problems: These problems mainly revolve around students feeling stressed about tests, CATs and assignments. Many high-grade point average students carry a heavy load of unhealthy stress. Many students are reporting feeling overworked, sleep deprived and stressed out. This is majorly because students have been cheating, pulling all- nighters to study, depressed and seeking drug use and self- mutilation just to cope (Jerusha et al., 2010). More than 70% of students, in the study by Jerusha et al., always feel stressed by their school work and 56% reported always feeling stressed about their grade, tests and college acceptance. College students expressed that school work related factors caused more stress that divorce, family problems and sibling illnesses.

Time constraint: Although students spend most of their time in school, they still have to spend more time while away from school to complete assignments and study. This causes friction between social time and study time leading to many students feeling they do not have enough time to study and still complete their assignments and huge projects. One student in the Jerusha study expresses that they are given large amounts of work that do not assist them to learn anything because of the rush to complete the tasks assigned to that that, the student thinks, are mundane. Most confessed to having copied assignments and cheated on exams due to these pressures although they had above average grades.

The last problem college student’s face is finances. Like all people college students too have financial needs. Between tuition fees, books, housing and commuting students do not have enough money and those supported by their parents feel they are not given enough money to just get by because colleges have become expensive. Students that are not supported by their parents have to find jobs to work in order to be able to pay for these necessities. This causes stress because it is hard to find good jobs without the necessary papers hence they settle for low paying jobs which pay them very little, sometimes too little to help them pay for their fees or other needs. Even those students who are lucky enough to get sufficient fund aid to cover immediate college expenses have financial stress of knowing they have to pay back the money once they get out of college and as it is finding jobs, a well- paying job for that matter is not easy (Mary, 2013). Students have reported parents losing jobs while they are still studying and they feel the need to cut on the hours so they can work to pay for their studies. Stress some financial has also been brought about by the students need to find a job after studying and the hard economic times in the world that have also trickled down to affect college students.

Although stress is a normal part of life and there is good and bad stress (Mary 2000).  Stress has major negative effects on an individual’s health. Stress in a college student can cause physical problems such as fatigue, headaches, stomach ulcers, lack of sleep, continuous tension and digestive problems. Other emotional problems brought by stress to an individual are extreme anger, depression, anxiety disorders, panic attacks and frustrations. These effects of stress may lead an individual to fail their exams due to lack of assignment completion reported by 53% of students who stated they were often too stressed to complete the assignments on time or end their life 17% of students reported a friend had talked about ending their life due to stress, 10% had attempted suicide and 7% had seriously considered ending their life as of 2008 (MTVu, 2009). Some stressors also affect the behavior of individual causing overreacting/ underreacting, anger outbursts, substance abuse and social withdrawal.

Another effect of stress on students is that most students are so stress that it causes students to lack time for friends and extra curricula activities which are important for young people to relieve stress and build other areas of their lives other than studies. Many students have reported either being too stressed or too busy completing assignments to talk or be with friends or go out others stated being too tired to be with friends. These stressors make students not to build on interpersonal relationships in their lives with will also be very important in their future lives.

How does student stress affect the economy? When schools release to the society overworked, depressed individuals with low energy levels they run the risk of having slow unmotivated workers who are equal to the elderly and not as productive as they should be and who are poor decision makers due to under/overreaction. The stress also causes students to cheat on their exams and copy assignments which cause  them to be workers who lack enough know how to work in the industrial areas they have been assigned leading to low productivity. Some college students who have taken up student loans to pay for their fees kill their fees commit suicide before they have repaid the loan leading to losses.

In conclusion therefore, Stress is an inescapable part of life that happens daily. A fair question would be what doesn’t cause stress? However, it is important to note that there is good stress that motivates you to achieve certain goals and there is the bad stress that can become chronic reducing the productivity of an individual and making them less active. These bad stressors are what have been highlighted in this essay. They should be prevented, to increase the productivity, energy levels and motivation of college students to learning, achieving good grades and scoring great jobs. Students should be encouraged to find stress relieving activities such as sports and movies that will help them deal with day to day stressors. Counseling should be offered to assist those with chronic stress to deal and cope with it and not end their lives or quit school.

What is traditional Chinese culture and how different is it from modern culture

CHINESE CULTURE

The Chinese culture happens to be the oldest culture in the world. Important components include literature, music, visual arts, martial arts, cuisine and religion. Cuisine comes mainly from the practice of the dynastic period when emperors would host banquets with 100 dishes per meal. Some restaurants such as Fangshan Restaurant in Beihai Park Beijing still have recipes close to those in the dynastic period.

Staple foods of the Chinese include rice, noodles, vegetables, sauces and seasonings. The Chinese are also famous for the Tofu which has spread beyond the nation’s borders even into Europe and America. The Tea culture of the Chinese still lives on. There are green teas, black teas and oolong teas whose preparation varies.

When it comes to fashion, different social classes boast different fashion trends. Yellow and red is reserved for the emperor. Traditional costumes play an important role in the country’s history and culture. Basic features are cross-collar, wrapping the right lapel over the left, tying with sash and a form of blouse plus skirt or long gown.

Today however, most of the Chinese wear modern clothes. This does not mean that the various designs have been neglected. Some have been incorporated into newer designs and are seen even in the fashion corporate world.

China is host to many religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Protestantism, and Catholicism. The largest group of religious traditions is the Chinese folk Religion which overlaps with Taoism and describes the worship of the shen and figures from Chinese mythology.

Marriage in China has undergone various changes. Traditional Chinese marriage is a ceremonial ritual within Chinese societies that involve a marriage established by pre-arrangement between families. Romantic love was allowed and monogamy was the norm for most citizens. Marriage is indeed of great significance to the whole society as it brings about procreation.

Difference in concepts: The person centered theory and Gestalt theory

The person centered theory and Gestalt theory: Difference in concepts

The person centered theory is based on the assumption that we have the capacity to understand the problems we have and we have the resources to solve them. The therapist focuses on the constructive side of the client and that which is right to people.

Clients thereby move forward by looking within as opposed to outside influences. They simply undertake their own “problem solving dialogues” thereby granting them growth as change is initiated from within.  The client has the ability to change without a high degree of influence and direction from the therapist.

The Gestalt theory is based on the assumption that the people and their behavior must be understood on the basis of ongoing relationships with the environments in which they are in. The therapist thereby supports the client in identifying the different perceptions of reality.

There is need to be aware of self, which is the internal world, in order to make contact with the external environment. Change, on the part of the client, occurs as a natural process as a result of the awareness of the” what is”. Heightened awareness allows the client to understand things which were not previously clear to them.

Gestalt therapy works for many different types of counseling needs which include gender issues, poverty and crisis. The emphasis is on therapeutic meaning which can come from the client’s nonverbal behavior or language.

Differences in relationship: The person centered theory and Gestalt theory

Person centered therapists avoid evaluation and do not interpret for clients. They do not question clients or probe them neither do they criticize them. In the person centered approach, the therapist is expected to provide support, understanding, acceptance, and care towards the client.

Change evolves from within the individual. The therapist has genuine and deep respect for the client (Tan, 2011). In the Gestalt relationship, the therapist assists the client in exploring and is engaging as they may offer suggestions, guidelines and relevant information to contribute to the client’s awareness.

Analysis of therapeutic techniques

Person centered Gestalt
Simply listening empathically is sufficient for therapy

The solution to the problem must come from within

Therapist engages the client and may make suggestions and give opinions
Often for crisis or suicidal clients Works for people whose enjoyment of life is minimal and are internally restrictive

Works for those referred to as restrained or constricted, focus is on present characteristics-here and now

Techniques are not specific such as problem solving  or cognitive restructuring of the clients thinking or behavioral methods for emotional control Techniques include telling clients to own their feelings as they talk passively rather than actively

Psychological impact of patients on isolation

Psychological impact of patients on isolation

There are myriad of factors that contribute to psychological instability among patients on isolation and this essay will analyse the main factors comprehensively to give reader the main picture of things as discussed below;

Feeling guilty, Victims see as if it’s their fault and they think that they had something to do with the situation. They think that everyone will view him/her as dirty.

Feeling alienated and lost: They feel as if they are not in the right place. They lack a sense of belonging.

Insecurity: Victims lack self-confidence and they are unable to face the situation as reality. They lack self-motivation. They are unable to trust people, they fear the repeat of the situation.

Betrayed: They feel betrayed by the people they trust and loved. They can’t go for any help. They have a sense of grief.

Disillusionment: They acquire a different view about what they know.

Fear: They can’t stay alone .They think of death always. The fear only goes when those they trust accompany them. They always battle with the situation, as they can’t share. They think there is something wrong with them and a feeling they are odd.

When you have undergone a traumatic experience, they may be having upsetting emotions, a feeling of constant danger, unable to trust people, memories, which are frightening and they feel, disconnected. This may take time to get over it and feel safe again.

6 MENTAL ILLNESSES AFFECTING THE ELDERLY

Mental illness affecting the elderly population

Mental illness is any brain related disease or disorder that affects a persons moods, thinking, reasoning, ability to relate with others and behavior. It is often a mental medical conditions that reduces ones ability to  cope with daily life demands. In this article we feature some of the mental disorders that affect the mental capability of senior citizens.

Depression

Research shows that one in four people will suffer depression at some point in their life. The elderly my suffer more from depression because their children have grown up and they may end up feeling alone and abandoned. Such thoughts may lead to  them being depressed.

Lack of something to do with their time may also make older people feeling useless leading to depression, stress and anxiety especially for older people who had active and productive lives and young adults and have now retired, have nothing to do and their children have grown up and left the home.

Depression is more common in adults who went through abuse at any points in their lives(physical, verbal or sexual abuse). These images of abuse may come back to the individual causing then to feel useless, unworthy and unloved.

Dementia

It is a term used to describe brain disorders that affect memory, thinking and reasoning of an individual enough to interfere with their day to day life. The symptoms of dementia include significant impairement of any of the following;

  • Communication and language
  • Memory
  • Vision
  • Ability to pay attention
  • Reasoning

Dementia patients often have progressive symptoms that start off normal and gradually get worse.

Alzheimer’s disease

It is the most common form of dementia. It has no cure and worsens as it progresses leading to eventual death. Its symptoms which include short-term memory loss may be confused with age-related concerns or depression. As it progresses, symptoms include confusion, mood swings, trouble with language, violence and long-term memory loss. With time bodily functions are lost leading to death. However it should be noted that the eventual cause of death is an external factor such as pneumonia and not the disease itself.

Stroke

It happens when blood flow to the brain stops and within seconds the brain cells start to die. There is ischemic stroke caused by a blood clot that clogs the blood vessels in the brain and there is  hemorrhagic stroke caused when a blood vessel ruptures and bleeds into the brain. Stroke is a medical emergency accelerated by either age or high blood pressure. It may cause serious brain damage or death.

After stroke a patient may experience memory loss, limb numbness, trouble walking and speech problems.

Psychosis

This is a mental disorder in which the elderly affected loses touch with reality. Symptoms include:

  • Hallucinations: affects any of the senses the most common being hearing voices
  • Delusions: false beliefs that are mostly paranoid in nature.
  • Catatonia: inability to interact at all with the world while awake and when a part of the body is moved it stays there even if it is a bizarre position.
  • Though disorders that affect speech and writing.

Parkinson’s disease

It is a generative disorder of the brain cells at the central nervous system. The cause of this disorder is unknown and it has no cure. In its early stage, symptoms include slow movement, shaking and difficulty walking (movement-related problems). In the late stages symptoms include dementia and depression, sleep and emotional problems. Sensory difficulties are also its symptom.

Schizophrenia

It is a rare mental disease that makes it almost impossible to distinguish between what is real and what is unreal, relate with others and manage emotions. A person with schizophrenia will have hallucinations, delusions, disorganized behavior and speech, have emotion expression problems.

Though it has no cure, there are medications to reduce these symptoms.

Different Death Cultural Beliefs and Rituals and impact on health care practitioners.

Different Death Cultural Beliefs and Rituals

Introduction

Some communities in the world practice dangerous, health endangering practices to honor their dead. Some practices are so serious they could end up killing the whole community. In honor of the dead some community used to and some still do horrifying mind boggling things which include endo-cannibalism and sati which endanger the lives of the performers. This essay will show 10 culture’s death rituals and explain how the rituals impact health care practitioners.

  1. Endo-cannibalism

This is the act of eating the human flesh of a person from the same community, social group or tribe after they were dead. The dead bodies are eaten to “return the life force”. It is mostly practiced in New Papua Guinea, the Wari people of Brazil and also the Yanomano Indians of south Venezuela (Cain & Mark, 2001). Although the Yanomano’s culture is slightly different, they eat the crushed bones of the dead, and the flesh is not consumed, it is still considered as endo-cannibalism. The yanomami’s believe that they eat your ash to save your soul (Dr. Frank, 2011).

  1. Sati

It is a funeral ritual in which a widowed woman immolates herself on the dead husband’s pyre among the Asians. The ritual was basically the widowed woman killing herself as sacrifice. It was done voluntarily although is some areas women were forced to do so to prevent them from killing their rich husbands (Cain & Mark, 2001).

  1. Sky burials

It was practiced by the Tibetan Buddhists. The dead would be sliced in small pieces and offered to animals or given whole to vultures. The Buddhist saw no need to preserve a dead body that to them seemed like an empty vessel (Ken, 2010). To them using their remains to sustain the life of another creature was and still is an act of compassion. 80% of Buddhists still practice the culture even today (Dr. Frank, 2011).

  1. Finger amputation

The ritual finger amputation was done my every female relative and children of the deceased by the Dani people. It was done to gratify the spirits as well as to use physical pain to express sorrow and loss. To amputate the finger, it was tied with a piece of string and then cut off with an axe and the cut off part was burnt and the ashes kept in a special place (Dr. Frank, 2011).

  1. Baha’i

They require their dead to be buried an hour’s travel from the place of death. The body is washed and the diseased wears a burial ring. They have no death rituals except for the prayer songs (Cain & Mark, 2001).

  1. Turning of bones

Performed in Madagascar, the mourners dig up their dead cover them in new clothes then dance and sing with the corpse around the tomb (Cain & Mark, 2001).

  1. The ifugao

The ifugao people of Benguet, philistines let their dead “stick” around for eight days. The deceased relatives prop up a chair in front of the house and the deceased sits there for eight days. The arms and legs are tied to keep the corpse in position and the eyes closed so they don’t witness the suffering of the world (Cain & Mark, 2001).

  1. Drinking the corpses water

In Nigeria, if a man died and the relatives suspected the wife to have murdered him, they would lock the woman and the corpse in the same room for several nights and then wash the corpse and force the woman to drink the water. The dead would be buried with a broom so he could revenge on those who killed him (Friberg, 2000).

  1. Viking funeral rituals.

When a Viking noble man died a female slave would volunteer to join him. She would be guided day and night and given intoxicating drinks. When the cremation ceremony was started the girl would go tent to tent having sex with all the men in the village (Ken, 2010). While a man would be having sex with her he would say “tell your master I did this because I love him”. She would then return to a tent where she would have sex with 6 Vikings, be strangled to death then stubbed by the village matriarch (Dr. Frank, 2011).

  1. Buddhist self-mummification

A Buddhist priest would eat nuts and seeds for 1,000 days and then drink poisonous tea for another 1,000 days: the bark of the tree in the tea would protect his gut from maggots. After the 1,000 days, the priest set himself in a room and waits for death. 1000 days later they would open the room and if the mummification had worked the priest would be honored as a Buddha and there would be a ceremony (Dr. Frank, 2011).

Impact of these rituals on health care providers

  • It becomes hard to contain some diseases like STI In cases where one person has sex with many people and the kuru disease caused by eating of human flesh.
  • Diseases like rabbis too become hard to manage because they can spread from infected flesh when eaten
  • It becomes strainous for health care providers to help people with third degree burns from sati
  • Convincing the people that starving to death is a form of suicide
  • It is also difficult for health care providers to provide the required health care to the people.

7 Stages of life psychology essay summary

Stages of life are essentially separated into four major categories; birth/infancy stage, teenage/adolescent stage, youth/midlife stage and elderly stage. However these four demarcations can be thoroughly investigated if separated into smaller sub-headings consisting of pre-birth, birth, infancy (0-3 years), early childhood (3-6 years), middle childhood (6-8 years), late childhood (9-11 years), adolescent (12-20), early adulthood (20-35), midlife adulthood (35-50), mature adulthood (50-80) and late adulthood (80+).

The stages highlighted above have a different influence on the general health of an individual though the norm suggests that one will fall sick ones in a while in his/her lifetime (Boyd, Bee & Johnson, 2006). According to surveys, late adulthood (80+), early/ midlife adulthood and birth/infancy stages have been identified as three stages in life where individuals are likely to visit health centres. Reasons for health concerns within these ages are; weak immune system, reproduction and deteriorating immune system (Boyd, Bee & Johnson, 2006).

To put this discussion to the test, I wisely selected an elderly female friend in her late 80s but still responsive and active. My criteria for this selection was because she had passed through nearly all the stages of her life, therefore, could shed some light on some if not all of them. My first question to her was if she felt her current or previous stages had an effect on interaction with clinicians.

She explained that her current stage of life significantly affected her intimacy with health facilities since it was the time she experienced problems with some of her functions including sight, coordination, difficulty in locomotion and the rate of some infections were higher compared to earlier on in life e.g. persistent cold. She also singled out early adulthood as the other stage she visited health experts as it was the time she was in her reproductive stages (Boyd, Bee & Johnson, 2006).

When asked which areas of the health facility she often attended or were most concerned with her treatment, she identified nursing homes and home cares. She said that her frail health required her to constantly visit these areas so that she could learn ways of staying healthy and prolonging her lifespan. She also added that during her early/middle adulthood areas she frequented maternity wards and reproductive health centres since it was the period she was expectant.

My next question was if she was in the company of her family members during her hospital stay and she agreed. She said that her daughter and two grandchildren helped her during her first three visits to the nursing home. In her subsequent visits, her brother and two sons took turns accompanying her to the facility. She added that it was very helpful since they did the booking and handled all hospital protocols (Boyd, Bee & Johnson, 2006).

The other question was whether her family was included in the initial or later treatments. She said that they were mostly involved in her post-procedure instructions specifically with ensuring she adhered to her prescriptions as well as helping her with some physical exercises. During her treatment she was mainly assisted with her medics; she added that her physiotherapy sessions were too complicated hence only trained professionals would handle such.