Vaccinations and vaccines explained
Vaccination is administrating an antigen/vaccine to stimulate a person’s body to develop immunity to a pathogen. It is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases Maurice Hilleman is a prolific inventor of vaccines such as that of mumps and measles.
To eliminate the risk of spread of diseases, governments have created a specified time for administration of vaccines. During these times, it is mandatory for all people to get these vaccines either at local health institutions or areas provided by the government. In countries with limited transport means and poor economic status, there are a lot of deaths due to this.
The World Health organization among others is trying to establish links with various countries to ensure vaccinations take place globally especially that of children. Routes for administration of vaccines differ from oral to nasal, subcutaneous, intradermal and intramuscular.
Vaccination does not apply only to human beings. It also can be done to animals. The importance of vaccination is that it has helped in the prevention as well as cure of very many diseases all over the world therefore preventing deaths.
There are a number of cases however where families have raised cases in court about the side effects of various vaccines. They have, as a result been given prizes as compensation. The government has put a stop to some of these vaccines to avoid the said effects. Organizations however say that these accusations are unfound.
All citizens should ensure they take advantage of vaccinations given by the government since it is to their advantage.
This is any type of cheating with regard to any form of academic exercise. It may take various forms such as: plagiarism, fabrication, deception, cheating, bribery, sabotage, impersonation or professional misconduct.
Academic dishonesty dates back to early years when strict measures were taken against both examiner and examinee who were caught. This however did not stop them from doing so.
Studies show that 20% of students started cheating in the first grade. Cheating also witnessed among teachers shows that 35% of teachers witnessed to their colleagues cheating in one way or another. This is due to consequences of the results on the teacher as well as high-stakes testing.
This study was conducted in North Carolina. Academic dishonesty by cheating is a common example in academic institutions. It make be by looking over somebody’s shoulder to see their work, writing information on a piece of paper and carrying it to the exam room or even hiding notes in the bathroom toilet tank.
Professional misconduct on the other hand is not paying attention to cheating students or over grading and under grading of work. The need to cheat is often met by the desire to look good for both the examiner and the examinee. Most individuals do not think about the consequences of their acts and are often determined to do what it takes to pass in their exams.
The society does not have a place for failures. This may be a major reason for academic dishonesty. By this I mean that all those who do not pass in t hat final test either have to repeat their course or look for some form of work or study but do not get to graduate. This form of pressure accelerates cheating all over the world.
The need to use shortcuts instead of undergoing the grueling process of reading is also a reason. Laziness has been on the rise among both the students and teachers. Why undergo many tedious hours grading papers as a teacher when you can just award a standard grade?
Why read for hours and finally not pass when you can carry your notes with you and eventually pass the test? These questions need to be answered in depth before taking any form of action against dishonest individuals.
Also known as academic dress dates back to the early years with the establishment of universities in Europe. It is a traditional form of clothing worn in the event of graduation or upon completion of a course in the university or colleges. It consists of a gown (robe), with a separate hood and usually a cap.
What is worn under the robe has evolved over the years but it is common to wear official clothes such as a suit for men and the equivalent for the women. Some universities are known to prevent those not properly dressed from joining the procession. Casual wear is not allowed during such ceremonies.
In the past, robes were worn while open at the front. This trend has also been seen among graduates of various institutions but the most recent trend is wearing the robe fully closed at the front.
The make and material depends on the climatic conditions and weather of the location of the institution. Materials used also vary from extremely economical to the very expensive. In the United States, Bachelor and Master Degree candidates are presented with the very expensive type of regalia. Doctoral graduates only wear their gowns during commencement and therefore rent their gowns instead of purchasing them.
Academic regalia vary by country. Each country has its own form of dress. Colors of the dress are also determined by the course undertaken in the University or college.
In the United States, Herff Jones has been known to be a supplier of regalia to various universities and colleges for over 85 years. He runs a successful business where he is entrusted to provide academic regalia to candidates of many universities in the U.S.
Academic regalia are here to stay; what changes are the designs as well as trends due to the evolving fashion industry. So let’s keep with the season as we all advance in education.
Russian education facts
The education system of Russia is organized and coordinated by the government that ensures that general education is given free of charge and is available for every single individual.
Most of the schools in Russia are state owned but there are also private schools that have been established in recent years. The education system is fair for each child and provides adequate training to every single individual that goes through the system.
Education begins with pre-school before the child attains the age of six and is not compulsory. Children go to kindergartens which focus on intellectual and physical activities. The next step is primary school, which is part of the general education system.
Primary education lasts a period of four years followed by basic general education that lasts five years and finally the secondary education that lasts two to three years. The general education in Russia aims at intellectual, emotional, moral and physical development of the individual.
This is aimed at equipping the student with enough skills to tackle life issues outside education. It also helps individuals to make conscious decisions when it comes to professional education.
General education is compulsory and contains fields of study such as the Russian language, foreign languages, mathematics, history, politics and natural sciences. Every school has its own curriculum based on state requirements.
Upon completion of primary and general education, students sit for their final examinations and are awarded a Certificate of Basic General Education which qualifies the student for either secondary education, vocational education or to non-university level higher education.
After completing secondary general education, students are required to pass the state final examinations and are awarded a Certificate of Secondary General Education. General Education takes a total of 11 years to complete.
Russian education is efficient and good for every Russian child.
Facts to consider when writing a Reflective essay
A reflective essay is described as an analytical piece of writing that is characterized by a description of the facts that made up the event which is essentially setting the scene followed by a reflection where the student evaluates the experience.
In writing the reflective essay, it is important for the student to not only critically examine the essay question and identify the event or experience that one will reflect.
A reflective paper begins with an introduction that is characterized a thesis statement that critically illustrates the major points of the reflection and also presents to the readers a preview of the essay’s content without revealing many details.
The body of the essay includes the student’s personal experiences with the student being asked to critically explain a specific way that the experience had an impact on his attitude or actions.
In this regard, the use of specific details from the experience will be critical in clearly demonstrating the student’s area of growth. It is also important to note that reflective essays often require the student to talk about the skills and responses that have been strengthened by exposure to this experience.
A reflective essay conclusion should detail how the student plans to use the knowledge learned from the experience to guide his actions in the future.
Treating and managing emotions essay
Management of emotions differs from one person to another. Emotional distress however has become a common problem among individuals of different ages all over the world. Feelings of distress may be sadness, fear, depression, panic, or anxiety. Emotional distress may lead one to see as if nobody understands what you are going through.
One’s feelings are generally vulnerable to hurt and disappointment and getting through to the person may prove difficult. These feelings may be overwhelming to the individual and may cause a strain on the physical and emotional energy of an individual.
How to manage emotions in a positive way
Anger is also an emotion that drives many to extents they cannot understand. Diagnosis of anger problems may take time since the first sign is denial. Many people with anger issues have found themselves in situations that they cannot control. Expressing anger in a productive and controlled way can prevent feelings from building up and causing emotional problems such as hostility and inconsiderate impulses.
Anger management classes and treatment are however available for individuals who are suffering from anger management issues. When bad things happen, it may take a while to get over the pain and to feel safe again. Emotional and psychological trauma is the result of stressful events that destroy one’s sense of security making one feel helpless and vulnerable.
Importance of managing emotions
Treatment involves first accepting you are suffering from some kind of emotional trauma or breakdown. Therapists specialized in this field are available for patients who need help. Treatment options available are many and are effective based on the attitude of the person being treated.
Emotional distress, trauma and breakdown are common and treatable. It is definitely no cause of alarm but requires immediate treatment. There is an upside to every situation, so once you have a problem, solve it and smile.
Writing academic essays
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Tasks of euro system
Support smooth process of payment systems
Payment systems are a way to move money linking credit and other financial associations. Euro system accepts the significance of having sound and well-organized payment systems. not only for the performance of monetary policy but also for the steadiness of the economic system and the economy as a whole.
Hold and control foreign reserves
The European Central Bank’s foreign reserves are presently controlled in a dispersed manner by the National Central Banks that chooses to participate in operational ECB foreign reserve organization actions. These NCBs operate on behalf of the ECB in accordance with directions obtained from the ECB
Foreign exchange operations
Foreign exchange functions control domestic liquidity and exchange rates conditions. Both are essential elements for monetary policy. Secondly, if the central bank bears out this duty, it guarantees that the foreign exchange processes stay dependable with the intentions of the central bank’s monetary policy.
The Euro system is in charge of implementing and defining the monetary policy of the euro region. This open rule function put into practice generally by monetary market processes. Essence of this task is the full organization of the Euro system over the financial base
The American cancer society is a nation- wide community based voluntary health organization whose aims are to eliminate cancer as a major health problem by preventing it, saving live and reducing suffering from the disease by researching, educating and advocacy and services. This essay will look at cancer and how the American society is involved in reducing cancer incidences and serving those who suffer from it and those who whose relatives suffer.
If a friend got diagnosed with cancer I would recommend several great services offered by ACS:
- Mileage reimbursement and road to recovery. I would recommend this because the treatment of cancer can be very expensive for anyone regardless of their financial status. These services provide transportation of ill patient to and from the treatment center.
- Wigs and look good.. feel better services would be great for a female friend who is experiencing hair lose and other cosmetic effects caused by the treatment of cancer. These services also provide them with education on what to do so that even through the treatment and the side effects they can still look good, improve their looks and self esteem as well.
- I can cope is another service I would recommend for us, the friend and the family members of the patient. It will help us deal with the diagnosis and the possibilities of treatment or loss. It b will also teach us how to treat the patient so that they feel supported and not alienated or like people who are just about to die (American cancer society, 2013).
There are many factors that may contribute to the yearly increase in diagnosis of cancer cases and mortality rates. These factors include:
- Discouragement: a person may know someone who had cancer and died and therefore even after diagnosis they may refuse treatment because they think they will die anyway.
- Late diagnosis: some people find out they have cancer when it is in the late stages and therefore treatment is not very helpful.
- Imitation of the illness; in some cases the illness may imitate a disease and therefore a patient may be treated for the symptoms and never actually tested for cancer
- Bad habits: it is known that smoking increases the chances of a person having cancer and other related diseases and yet many people still continue to smoke and thus get the illness.
A policy that will look at increasing he prices of cigarettes and other cancer causing diseases will be helpful in reducing lung cancer and throat cancers. Making treatment of cancer cheaper and radiology machines readily available will increase the likelihood of a person getting treatment early or preventing them from stopping the treatment because of lack of money (American cancer society, 2013).
The breast cancer research program is aimed at looking at the causes of breast cancer and how it can be treated. It is the highest researched and funded research by the society. It affects a lot of people and kills a lot of women not only in America but the entire world as well. Therefore, this research is aimed at helping treat and prevent the cancer among women and men (American cancer society, 2015).
Ethical dilemmas in the global healthcare
Ethics presents one with a difficult choice of choosing one option over the other where both choices presents potential risks and one is often caught at the middle wondering what to do. Both choices are often desirable but it requires one to critically examine each carefully before making a choice. Medical practitioners are often found in difficult ethical medical dilemmas in their everyday activities. Such dilemmas include:
Clinical limits- this is where medical students fresh from school are deployed to busy health centres where they are forced to care for patients despite their limited exposure to real care of patients. This often occurs when there is short staffing and the hospital is forced to make the students care for their patients despite their limited capabilities and beyond their level of training. Their desire to help despite their inexperience can cause an ethical conflict which may expose both students and patients vulnerable to negative outcomes especially to students early in their training with limited exposure
This usually occurs when the doctor is planning to conduct a complicate procedure on a patient in a bid to help save their life. The procedures are usually bound to be accompanied by complications and the doctor in this case is forced to inform the patient of these complications before proceeding.
This can be tough because some cultures belief that when you say that a certain complication will occur during the procedure, it is bound to happen and it therefore becomes a challenge to the practitioner whether to inform the patient and the family or not. Obtaining an informed consent from the patient will therefore be complex because people from different cultures have different beliefs despite the positive impact the procedure will have on their health. One should therefore learn from people from the people from the various communities they are working with before making decision during patient care.
Distributive justice occurs when both the harms and benefits of a medical research are equally distributed to the affected vulnerable group and ease the burden on the target group. This can occur during a disease outbreak and doctors are forced to properly cover and protect themselves from acquiring this time of the outbreak.
In this case therefore there should be equitable access to protective gear and post-exposure for all medical practitioners to avoid the spread of the disease. Medical practitioners are therefore at crossroads as to whether they should share the limited protective gears with their colleagues or only keep themselves safe.