Personality and individual difference
Having a deeper understanding of intelligence can serve better in analyzing the comprehensive nature of a human being without bias. Human intelligence encompasses a multifaceted nature ranging from the cognitive, emotional and the physiological which change constantly over one’s lifetime. It can be challenging to develop a comprehensive mechanism that can adequately account for the diverse nature of human intelligence. However there are a few approaches that have been developed to assess certain aspects of human abilities. The intelligence quotient is by far the most frequently used criteria. This essay will look into this method and evaluate its validity as a tool for testing human abilities.
Key words: intelligence quotient, cognition, emotions, physiology, test
Personality and individual differences
Intelligence comprehensively means the ability to solve problems and to adapt to and learn from life’s everyday experiences. Broadly it can be broken down to accommodate human characteristics such as interpersonal skills and creativity. Mental abilities are what enable one to adapt to ones environment, to judge, comprehend, reason, understand and deal with people and to act purposefully, think rationally and deal effectively in the environment. This doesn’t happen exclusively within cognition; other elements of human nature are equally inclusive to render such an overall judgment.
Sir Francis Galton designed the IQ test which was purposed to differentiate between normal and abnormal intelligence growth in children at that time. How does one measure the multi-dimensions in a person’s intelligence?
Stanford Binet’s model of measurement is largely used. It involves taking into account a child’s mental and chronological age. IQ SCORE =MA/CA*100. These tests were generally used as placement tests in public schools. Binet’s test was used to identify children with serious intellectual difficulties. The tests measured understanding using language, computational skills memory and ability to recall.
Pros and cons
IQ tests are highly correlated with academic achievement test scores. They however do not demonstrate how intelligence attributes have a poor relation to academic deficits. As a result a mixture of complication arises when using IQ tests. First IQ test scores provide impure mixtures in assessment. They tend to assess multiple abilities without focusing on a specific attribute. For instance a skill testing reading is the same skill required when testing IQ. It becomes impossible to distinct the use of IQ in arriving at judging achievement or placement.
Secondly it is not clear to ascertain the direction between achievement and intelligence using IQ tests. One is unable to know whether intelligence causes achievement or whether achievement causes intelligence. Thirdly it appears that at some point intelligence attributes are correlated to academic achievement but this attribute disappears when assessing the individual over time (Beaujean, Dombrowski, Benson and McGill 2018)
Although the IQ model of testing can be viewed as a tool in assessment of the intelligence of an individual, the model has a number of pitfalls which demerit it in providing accurate cognitive projections as it purports to. The IQ designs tend to overlook intelligence comprehensively and it does not include other essential factors necessary to test human abilities such as intelligence. Overreliance on IQ tests disregards other human faculties such as emotions which equally play a critical role in the overall human evaluation.
Beaujean,A.A.,Benson,F.N.,Dombrowski,S.C.,&Mcgill,R.J.(2018)Journal of Intelligence. A
misuse of IQ Scores: Using the Dual Discrepancy/Consistency Model for Identifying Specific Learning Abilities.