Topic: Cyber-racism annotated bibliography


Summary of assignment
• Task: The four-source essay asks you to synthesize the arguments of four sources.
• Length: Minimum of 1000 words. The instructor will give you comments on the first
draft and let you know if you need more development beyond 1000 words.
• Format: APA
• Sources: Four sources, all of which you will find through library searches. You will
select a topic of your choice, conduct searches in the library databases, focus the topic,
and determine four sources to use in this essay.
o All of your sources must be from scholarly journals or credible trade
journals. No sources can be from popular journals.
o Please use only four sources. Please do not incorporate more than four sources
into this essay.

I have attached my annotated bibliography, as well as two of the articles from it, pick two more and they can be found online for free. I need a solid foundation so that I can elaborate on this and add more sources in the future.

Annotated Bibliography
Bliuc, A.M., Faulkner, N., Jakubowicz, A., & McGarty, C. (2018). Online networks of racial hate: A systematic review of 10 years of research on cyber-racism. Computers in Human Behavior, 87, 75–86.
This article discusses how the authors have created a systematic review on the growing body of research on cyber-racism, by taking current knowledge to create various paths for future studies on how cyber-racism is perceived by individuals and groups. One of the more notable results was that although racist individuals and groups use various means to portray their views, they still “share a high level of skill and sophistication when expressing cyber-racism” (p. 75). The authors concluded that future researchers need to use other methods and ways to target key issues of how the Internet contributes to cyber-racism. The article provides a lot of research from a 10-year span, which allows a lot of insight. Even though the research is more a qualitative analysis of online textual data, it provides ways that other researchers can accumulate results rather than using what they have found to create their review. This article would provide a solid resource because it connects ten years of separate studies to bring awareness to what exactly cyber-racism is and what contributes to its growth.
Jakubowicz, A. (2017). Alt_Right White Lite: trolling, hate speech and cyber racism on social media. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 9(3), 41–60.
The article investigated an aspect of online racism, anti-Semitism, due to the author’s own experiences, and the “rise of online neo-Nazism,” as well as other ethnic groups (p. 42). The results showed that it is important to know the structure on how media will develop as we move forward into a more technological advance period, which also provided insight on how the government also doesn’t want to push to find other solutions to these issues of online racism. The study provided various proposals that have been provided in Australia, which indicates various levels on how to address cyber-racism. This article provides detailed insight on the issues of cyber-racism in Australia. The author was able to tie his personal experience to other relatable issues to come up with recommendations on how to get ahead of these issues. This article would be great if I was just focused on cyber-racism in Australia, but it can be used to compare the how different countries can view cyber-racism.
Kang, J. (2000). Cyber-Race. Harvard Law Review, 113(5), 1130-1205.
This article dives into how cyberspace can change the way that race functions in American society, by investigating the author’s theory that the Internet could be used as a platform to get rid of the racial situations that occur in cyberspace. This can be done by altering the structure of how people view and interact with one another. One of the more notable results would be the reality of understanding that this could damper the racial injustice that takes place online, it will not the ultimate solution to end all racial conflicts and inequality, but open endless ways to address racial justice. The study concluded that a policy of digital diversification is the way, instead of using a single, uniform manner of cyberspace. The article gives insight on how cyberspace ties into racial mechanics, as well as a policy that can be used to disrupt the idea of set standards for racial classifications. The author was able to create a target goal for his study, which shows the depth that cyber-racism can be explored. This article would be a good resource, because it presents the role cyberspace could have on how race functions.
Keum, B. T., & Miller, M. J. (2017). Racism in digital era: Development and initial validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v10). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64(3), 310–324.
The article investigated a way to create the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to identify and bring exposure to online racism, as well as the racist motives used among people of color. One of the more notable results was that the expected results of the “PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate,” which proves that the scale test is reliable (p. 311). The study concluded that a “bifactor model of PORS, with three specific factors and one general factor, was superior to a number of plausible competing models” (p. 321). The article shows how people’s personal experiences of racial cyber-aggression can reflect in their direct online interactions with other people. The authors were able to combine their literature reviews with focus groups and a survey, along with the qualitative data to conduct their research, which shows that it can be done without piggybacking off others’ views without a process to back-up their views. I believe this would be a great resource because it provides how cyber-racism can stem from various aspects, including online interactions, along with the factors that can identify the interaction on a scale perspective.
Mason, G., & Czapski, N. (2017). Regulating Cyber-Racism. Melbourne University Law Review, 41(1), 284–340. Retrieved from
The article examined the “current legal and regulatory terrain around cyber-racism in Australia,” which provides examples of how there is a gap in these mechanisms when it comes to regulating online content of a racial nature (p. 285). One of the more notable results was that their proposal can strengthen the necessary tools to deal with cyber-racism. The study concluded that it would be best to use a multidimensional approach, which can target various aspects when all options have been exhausted. This article provides insight on cyber-racism issues in Australia and allows an in-depth way to create effective regulation. The authors created an analysis from set in stone rules of how to address cyber-racism. This article would be great if I was only talking about the cyber-racism issues in Australia. But it does raise a way to approach my research. Although it is a world-wide problem, I may need to examine what countries are most affected by cyber-racism, as well as explore the reasons this may be.