When did the Ottoman Empire rule end in Egypt
Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517 following the Ottoman-Mamluk war which lasted between 1516 and 1517. Syria was absorbed into the empire in 1516. Egypt was a difficult province for the Ottoman Sultans to control due to the continuing influence of the Mamluks who had ruled the country for centuries.
The invasion of Egypt by the French led the Empire to become vulnerable to attacks and after the French were expelled, power was seized in 1805 by Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian military commander of the Ottoman army in Egypt.
Officers in the Ottoman Egyptian army were appointed locally from the various militias and had strong ties to the Egyptian aristocracy. Soon after the French left Egypt the country started experiencing troubles due to the Ottoman’s attempts to destroy the Mamluks.
After a long period of struggling the region started experiencing some form of uplift for example in areas of education in areas such as Alexandria. The agricultural sector in itself was seeing an improvement as the cultivation of cotton was developing in the Delta.
Muhammad Ali ensured the port of Alexandria rose into importance once again. The overland transit of goods from Europe to India through Egypt was resumed.
A peace treaty was signed between Ali and the Western empire and even though the peace treaty was harsh, it left Ali’s dynasty in power.