Topic: The Racial Wage Gap in the United States Research Paper

Topic:Racial Wage Gap in the United States

Peer Reviewed Source #1

Citation:Kerr, C., & Walsh, R. (December 2014). Racial wage disparity in US cities. Race and Social Problems, 6(4), 305-327.

Important Points:Racial wage gaps are present in the United States, however, it isn’t a national issue. The racial wage gap varies from city to city and in some places doesn’t exist at all. There may be a large gap in cities in the south but there also cities in the north where the gap is not prevalent. “The estimated gaps from the 1990 Census are slightly skewed right with an average value of −0.11 and range from −0.24 to 0.11, implying as much as an 11 % premium or a 24 % penalty on black wages depending on location. The estimated gaps from the 2000 Census also have an average value of −0.11 and a similar range from −0.29 to 0.11. However, the distribution of gaps using 2000 data is much tighter around the mean.”

Peer Reviewed Source #2

Citation:Huffman, M., & Cohen, P. (2004). Racial Wage Inequality: Job Segregation and Devaluation across U.S. Labor Markets. American Journal of Sociology, 109(4), 902-936. doi:10.1086/378928

Important Points:Blacks are “systematically segregated into jobs with disproportionate black representation and this segregation is more sever in labor markets with larger relative black populations.” Jobs with more black workers tend to pay less than other jobs. In areas with higher segregation, it is more difficult for black workers to find well-paying or high skilled jobs.

Peer Reviewed Source #3

Citation:Smith, J. (1993). Affirmative Action and the Racial Wage Gap. The American Economic Review, 83(2), 79-84. Retrieved May 28, 2020, from

Important Points:“Without question, the Reagan years had an impact on the resources available to the EEOC, which were much less than they would have been if Jimmy Carter had been reelected. In addition, the process of extending the constituency of protected minority-group status to cover more than three-quarters of the work force continued during the 1980’s, thereby debasing the legitimate claim black men have on the benefits of this status. However, other forces were operating during the 1980’s that largely produced the slowdown in black male wage progress. These forces included the slowing of education gains, which completely ceased among younger workers; the sharp rise in the income returns to schooling which favored the more highly educated white worker; and rising wage inequality that dis- advantaged low-wage workers generally. If these forces had not existed, the wage gains black men achieved would have been instead judged as impressive.” This article also goes into how the education differences between white and black men have an effect on the earnings throughout ones life.

Peer Reviewed Source #4

Citation:Western, B., & Pettit, B. (2005). Black-white wage inequality, employment rates, and Incarceration1. The American Journal of Sociology, 111(2), 553-0_10.

Important Points:“We also find that labor force statistics for black men cannot be taken at face value. Our analysis indicates that estimates of mean relative wages of black men are inflated by low rates of labor activity. By 1999, the high rate of black joblessness inflated black relative earnings by between 7% and 20% among working-age men, and by as much 58% among young men. The appearance of strong wage gains for young men between 1985 and 1998 must also be assessed in light of rising joblessness. The analysis suggests that if black employment had been maintained at 1985 levels, black-white wage inequality would have fallen by just 10%, instead of the 30% actually observed.” “We found that a third of all jobless young black men are in prison or jail compared to just 10% of jobless young white men. Incarceration is a major source of employment in- equality, contributing significantly to selection bias in the estimation of black relative wages. Furthermore, the counterfactual wages of incarcerated men are likely to be much lower than the wages observed for men of the same age and education.

Other Source #1

Citation:Patten, E. (2016, July 1). Racial, gender wage gaps persist in U.S. despite some progress.

Important Points: “Education and workforce experience accounted for 52% of the wage gap between black and white men working in the public sector in 1990, and that adding occupational differences explained approximately 20% of the wage gap.” “However, looking just at those with a bachelor’s degree or more education, wage gaps by gender, race and ethnicity persist. College-educated black and Hispanic men earn roughly 80% the hourly wages of white college educated men.” This also gives polling numbers ofhow each race feels about certain questions like the color of your skin affecting the work you get or how you are treated in the work place.

Other Source #2

Citation:Kokoyachuk, R. E. (2020, March 20). Education Alone Can’t Close The Racial Wage Gap.

Important Points: Education may not be the “great equalizer” to equal pay. There are other things that could be done to equalize pay.“Better enforcement of racial work anti-discrimination laws.” “Policies that promote stronger labor standards.” “Improvements to worker bargaining power.”“Eliminating past earnings questions from job applications.” “Increased mentorship opportunities for minority workers.” ”Incentives for minority entrepreneurs and business owners.”

Other Source #3

Citation:Maroto, M. L. (2015). The absorbing status of incarceration and its relationship with wealth accumulation. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31(2), 207-236.

Other Source #4

Citation:Western, B. (2007). Mass imprisonment and economic inequality. Social Research, 74(2), 509-0_3. Retrieved from

Important Points:Incarceration has terrible effects on all races in finding jobs post-incarceration. In the early 2000’s, about 1/3 of young black male drop-outs were in custody, jail, or prison. Former inmates go to poor cities with low employment. That gives them low chances of employment and the jobs that are available are unsteady.


There are racial wage gaps in the United States, but they are localized in certain parts of the country; the South and places of discrimination and segregation (Kerr, C., & Walsh, R., 2014). There are some areas where black people are paid more (Kerr, C., & Walsh, R., 2014). For some reason, areas with higher black populations and more black workers get paid less (Huffman, M., & Cohen, P., 2004). The higher incarceration rates for black men have an effect on how much they earn and can help explain why there is a racial wage gap present (Western, B., & Pettit, B., 2005). In terms of education having an effect on the wage gap, according to Pew, education and workforce experience account for 52% of the wage gap between black and white men (Patten, E., 2016) However, education only makes up for 52% of this gap, there have been other proposals that could aid in the closing of this gap (Kokoyachuk, R. E., 2020). Incarceration has a terrible effect on future earnings, for all races, which may explain a lot of the other side of the wage gap, other than education (Western, B., 2007).

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Topic: The History and Development of Classical Music

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Think about what was important in the development of music regarding: origins of music; sacred versus secular; who performed the music; instrumental or vocal; what was the purpose of the song being written/why was it written/what was its function (just for fun, program or absolute music, or part of a church service?); what musical traits changed (SHMRG); size and change of the orchestra; development of instruments; composers; nationalism/exoticism; genres of music (symphony, sonata, cantata, concerto, lied, etc.); examples of compositions, etc.

Type of service-Academic paper writing
Type of assignment-Essay
Subject-Not defined
Pages / words-4 / 1100
Academic level-Sophomore (College 2nd year)
Paper format-MLA
Line spacing-Double
Language style-US English

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Topic: Jair Bolsonaro analysis essay

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Write an essay that analyzes the ideas and actions of Brazil’s president, Jair Bolsonaro.

In your essay, discuss:

1. His background.

2. Why he got elected and how populism helped him get elected.

3. What his beliefs and policies are.

4. How he is a dangerous leader for Brazil and the world.

5. How Bolsonaro compares and contrasts with Donald Trump, the president of the United States.

Please use at least five sources for this essay.

One source that you are required to use and discuss is Wendy Hunter and Timothy Power’s article, “Bolsonaro and Brazil’s Illiberal Backlash.” Journal of Democracy, January 2019

Include a word count at the top of the first page.

Please include a short introduction and conclusion.

Include an “Endnotes” page in Chicago Include a “Bibliography” page in Chicago This page is at the very end, and it lists all of the sources you have consulted.

Type of service-Academic paper writing
Type of assignment-Essay
Subject-Political Science
Pages / words-5 / 1375
Number of sources-5
Academic level-Sophomore (College 2nd year)
Paper format-Chicago
Line spacing-Double
Language style-US English

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Topic: Discuss the three great West African civilizations of Ghana, Mali and Songhay. How were they important to the history of West Africa?

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The essay you write should be at least 5 paragraphs and fully answer the question. The first paragraph should state your main point, the next paragraphs should support your main point and give concrete examples and your final paragraph should summarize your main point.

Type of service:-Academic paper writing

Type of assignment:-Essay


Pages / words:-1 / 275

Academic level:-Freshman (College 1st year)

Paper format:-MLA

Line spacing:-Double

Language style:-US English

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Topic: African Americans history essay

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Begin by reviewing the information in the textbook that discusses Booker T. Washingtonand W.E.B. DuBois (pages 263-264). Then read the following primary sources:

Essay 1:After carefully considering what you have read, write an essay (min: 300 words) in which you discuss the different visions each man had for African Americans in the United States. What advice did they give to African Americans? How were their visions similar and how were they different?Your essay must be 300 words. Use information from the textbook and from both speeches to back up your main points. In-text citations are required for the textbook and both speeches.

Type of service-Academic paper writing
Type of assignment-Essay
Pages / words-1 / 275
Number of sources-1
Academic level-High School
Paper format-MLA
Line spacing-Double
Language style-US English

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Topic: The Free Trade and Government Regulations paper

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The concept of free trade has been a debated topic for decades. Is free trade really free? What role do governments play in free trade?

What are the pros and cons of free trade for countries and for the planet? In a 580 word paper argue for or against the concept of free trade.

(Make sure to address the questions above.) Support your paper with at least four sources, two of which must be scholarly.

In your paper,
Analyze the idea of free trade.
Evaluate the pros and cons of free trade for countries and the planet.
Evaluate the role governments play in free trade.

two of the three resources should be scholarly.

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Topic: History of World Societies

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Doing your own research and with your own thoughts on Rome & the Roman Empire, answer the following questions.

1. What are the distinctive elements of the political and social structure of the Roman Republic (753-31 BCE)?

2. Between 31 BCE and 330 CE, Rome was the most powerful empire in the Mediterranean Zone – controlling vast territories in western and southern Europe, North Africa and western Asia.

From your own thoughts and research, what do you consider to be the Roman Empire’s greatest legacies?

Identify and discuss at least, three, and explain why you consider those Roman Empire’s greatest legacies.

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Topic: Sparta and Greece, Archaic and Classical

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The short assignment has TWO (2) parts and you must complete both.

You need to research the two set topics and write a 200-word paragraph on each (total 400 words). Detailed instructions are below.

The topics are:
1. To what extent did the unique Spartan politeia contribute to the long-term success of Sparta in the Archaic and Classical periods?

2. How did the Spartans fund their fleet in the Classical period?

Detailed instructions:
For each response, you need to write 200 tightly argued words arguing a single point. You are NOT being asked to provide an answer to the whole question, just an aspect of it. For the first question, you have two pdfs attached that you must use. For the second topic, you need to do your own research and find 2 scholarly sources, starting with Plutarch’s Life of Lysander. This is an opportunity to demonstrate your research skills.

Treat it like writing a single paragraph in an essay. You need:
1. A topic sentence
2. Evidence (ancient)
3. Argument (based on modern scholarship from two different viewpoints)
4. In-text referencing (NO footnotes).

The topic sentence is entirely up to you, but it must relate to the question in each case. It must be tightly defined to the single point you are discussing in the paragraph. Easily the most common mistake people make is to choose a topic that is far too broad to cover in one paragraph. Remember, you are NOT writing an essay condensed into a paragraph.

The evidence must be directly relevant to the topic you have selected and accurately quoted and cited.

You then need to provide the views of two modern scholars about the piece of evidence you have chosen. It follows that the piece of evidence must be contentious. Do not provide two opinions that agree with one another. Make sure the scholarship is reasonably modern. The easiest way to find areas of scholarly disagreement is to read an article. The whole point of most articles is to present the scholar’s new opinion on a topic. In so doing, the scholar will refer to the older opinion and, crucially, will cite the evidence on which s/he is relying.

All references are to be treated in the Harvard style. This means in-text referencing and a full bibliographic entry for the work cited. To give an example. You might write: “Hodkinson (1997, 85) wrote…”. Or: “Scholarly opinion now favours xyz (Hodkinson 1997, 85), and then put your cited work in the bibliography.

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Topic: United Nations Periodic Review on Human Rights

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What is the history behind this law, policy, or institution?

What is the purpose of this law, declaration, or institution?

How has it been implemented?

What have scholars or commentators said about its strengths, weaknesses, and overall effectiveness?

Discuss an example, case, or problem that illustrates the operation of this institution, declaration, or law

Type of service:-Academic paper writing

Type of assignment :- Essay

Subject :- Not defined

Pages / words :- 4 / 1100

Number of sources :- 5

Academic level :- High School

Paper format :- MLA

Line spacing :- Double

Language style :- US English

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Topic: Life & Liberty – Gettysburg Address Response

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For this assignment, there is no requirement to follow APA format rules (cover page, citations, references, etc.); this is your opinion and it is fine to write “I” or “me” and “my” from that first-person perspective.

Watch YouTube videos, Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address from the movie ‘Saving Lincoln’ and The Battle of Gettysburg: The Civil War in Four Minutes.

If you were in the audience at Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, knowing that you lost a family member in battle, what would your opinion of his speech be?

Consider, both from Lincoln’s speech and the death of your family member:

1) the moral responsibility we each carry and share to maintain our freedom, and

2) the sacrifice (death, loss) that this responsibility imposes on you in the battle for justice for all?

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