The aim of this assignment is to learn about scale development. This involves defining a construct, developing items to measure it, and providing a suitable validation procedure.
Exploratory factor analysis is a statistical technique that is used to reduce data to a smaller set of summary variables and to explore the underlying theoretical structure of the phenomena. In this assignment you will perform an exploratory factor analysis and detail your findings in a research report.
Perform an exploratory factor analysis on the items assessing the factors underlying equanimity.
In the format of a research report, describe the steps taken to select the final items and evaluate the psychometric properties (i.e. reliability, validity) of your final scale.
The following sections should be included in your report:
Title page APA style.
Introduction • Unchanged from Assignment 1, unless the feedback from your eLA suggested that your hypotheses missed the mark.
• The introduction will not be marked again and will not be included in the word count. However, if your hypotheses are not appropriate it may result in you conducting analyses which does not adequately assess validity. This will lead to losing marks for your results section and potentially also for your discussion.
Method • Describe the sample and measures used in your validation strategy.
• Do not include scales that you did not use.
• You can include the following statement under the Procedure sub-section of the Method: ‘An online survey was completed by undergraduate students at an Australian university at a time and place of their choosing’.
Results • Present the results from the factor analysis (or analyses if you performed more than one), including a justification for the extraction and rotation method used, factor analysis statistics and a description of the scale and inter-factor correlations. If items were removed, also describe the process through which the decision was made to exclude these items.
• Include a reliability analysis of the (revised) measure, including Cronbach’s alpha and related item statistics (e.g. alpha if item deleted) for the composite scale and each of the subscales.
• Include the descriptive statistics for all measures used.
• Include correlations, t-tests, etc. as appropriate that address your validation hypotheses.
Discussion This section aligns with what is expected in a discussion from any other lab/research report. It should present an evaluation of your (revised) measure, including:
• statements about the factor structure, items included/deleted and implications for the definition and measurement of the construct being investigated
• a discussion of the reliability of the final scales
• a discussion of the evidence for the validity of the scales
• a discussion of any revisions to the scale and recommendations for how it should be validated in the future.
References In-text referencing, presentation of the results and the reference list should be in APA 6th format.
Background on Equanimity
A growing body of evidence indicates that mindfulness (i.e., ‘the awareness that emerges through paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally to the unfolding of experience moment by moment’, Kabat-Zinn, 2003, p. 145) contributes to increased wellbeing and beneficial outcomes in clinical settings. However, as noted by Van Dam et al. (2018), mindfulness has been conceptualised and measured in a range of ways that could undermine the accuracy of research and the quality of mindfulness-based applications.
In line with this, Desbordes et al. (2015) argue that equanimity – a balanced, impartial approach to all aspects of human experience – tends to be overlooked. Equanimity is viewed as a dispositional quality that arises from, and is the main point of engaging in, mindfulness. Indeed, some aspects of what is considered to be mindfulness may in fact be elements of equanimity. Your task is to develop a measure of equanimity. While Desbordes et al. (2015) cover a range of areas in which equanimity could be displayed, for the purposes of this assignment and the development of your items, consider equanimity to be a unidimensional (i.e., onefactor) construct.
Desbordes, G., Gard, T., Hoge, E. A., Hölzel, B. K., Kerr, C., Lazar, S. W., … & Vago, D. R. (2015). Moving beyond mindfulness: defining equanimity as an outcome measure in meditation and contemplative research. Mindfulness, 6(2), 356-372. DOI: 10.1007/s12671-013-0269-8
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice, 10, 144–156. DOI: 10.1093/clipsy.bpg016
Van Dam, N. T., van Vugt, M. K., Vago, D. R., Schmalzl, L., Saron, C. D., Olendzki, A., … & Fox, K. C. (2018). Mind the hype: A critical evaluation and prescriptive agenda for research on mindfulness and meditation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(1), 36-61. DOI: 10.1177/1745691617709589
Kahn, J. H. (2006). Factor analysis in counseling psychology research, training, and practice: Principles, advances, and applications. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(5), 684-718. doi:10.1177/0011000006286347
Giluk, T. L. (2009). Mindfulness, big five personality, and affect: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(8), 805-811. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.026
Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., van Dulmen, M. H. M., Segal, Z. V., Ma, S. H., Teasdale, J. D., Downloaded by Laurie Williams (firstname.lastname@example.org) lOMoARcPSD|7894166 13 & Williams, J. M. G. (2007). Initial psychometric properties of the experiences questionnaire: Validation of a self-report measure of decentering. Behavior Therapy, 38(3), 234-246. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2006.08.003
Chio, F., Lai, M., & Mak, W. (2018). Development of the Nonattachment Scale-Short Form (NAS-SF) using item response theory. Mindfulness, 9(4), 1299-1308. doi:10.1007/s12671-017-0874-z
Costello, A., & Osborne, J. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, 10(7), 1-9
Other ideas for references:
• Core principles, best practices and an overview of scale construction (PDF 650 KB) (Links to an external site.) (Furr, 2010).
• Student engagement scale: development, reliability and validity (Links to an external site.) (Gunuc & Kuzu, 2015).
• Development and psychometric evaluation of scales to measure professional confidence in manual medicine: a Rasch measurement approach (Links to an external site.) (Hecimovich, Styles, & Volet, 2014).
Type of service: Academic paper service
Type of assignment: Lab Report
Number of sources: 0
Academic level: Junior(college 3rd year)
Paper format: APA
Line spacing: Double
Language style: AU English