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Topic: Follow-up responses to classmates

Description

Follow-up responses to classmates’ initial answers or responses to discussion questions need to include at least one or more of the following;

integrate course theories with a practical application of the subject, offering a personal observation or experience (including Trauma, Oncology or Post Anesthesia),

or referencing real-world examples, current events, or presenting current research on the topic. Each response, including a resource, can be a page or less.

As there are six student responses in which I need to respond, write six pages to allow enough room for a separate response to each.

Instructions to writer:Follow-up responses to classmates’ initial answers or responses to discussion questions need to include at least one or more of the following; integrate course theories with a practical application of the subject, offering a personal observation or experience (including Trauma, Oncology or Post Anesthesia), or referencing real-world examples, current events, or presenting current research on the topic. Each response, including a resource, can be a page or less. As there are six student responses in which I need to respond, I am paying for six pages to allow enough room for a separate response to each.

1). Mary Arsenault 

Discussion question:Qualitative data has been described as voluminous and sometimes overwhelming to the researcher. Discuss two strategies that would help a researcher manage and organize the data.

Classmate’s Answer/Response:Four strategies that would help a researcher manage and organize the data is as follows. But since qualitative data could be described as voluminous and sometimes overwhelming to the researcher, the following avenues could be used to organize such massive kind of data. It all falls under how data is organized.
Step 1

Review the entire data set so that themes or patterns begin to emerge. Note these themes or patterns and assign letters, numbers or symbols to designate categories. Like responses on a particular topic can be grouped together, thereby making item analysis easier.
Step 2

Create a code table so that codes can be consistent and readily accessible for multiple researchers. When conducting qualitative research, it is preferable to use multiple researchers so that a variety of perspectives are considered in data analysis.
Step 3

Separate the data into the groups -themes, patterns or other categories. Once the data set has been coded, the data can be grouped according to the code. This will also make data analysis and discussion easier. The discussion and analysis can then focus on independent themes that are noted in the data.
Step 4

Organize survey data by question, respondent or sub-topic. It is important to organize survey data so that it can be easily analyzed. One method of organization is to separate the data according to the question, respondent category or sub-topic. It may be desirable to group all responses for question one together, question twos together and so on. On the other hand, it may be more efficient to group data by topic. Grouping data may facilitate the emergence of developing themes or patterns in the data set. Code transcribed data so that the source is readily evident. Researchers often use data that is obtained by transcribing recorded or written interviews notes. Since data will be generated from a variety of interviews or verbal recordings and grouped, it is important that source of the data is labeled. For instance, consider the researcher conducting an item analysis on data that is drawn from 20 sets of interview notes, or if the researcher is grouping all responses on a particular item, it is essential that each response be labeled to indicate the source.

Reference

Dunning, D. (2019, January 10). What Is a Vertical Database? Retrieved from https://itstillworks.com/vertical-database-12091185.html.

2). Rajani Rai

Discussion question:Qualitative data has been described as voluminous and sometimes overwhelming to the researcher. Discuss two strategies that would help a researcher manage and organize the data.

Classmate’s Answer/Response: Qualitative data is defined as the data collected by evaluating nonnumeric variables (Helbig, 2019). These data cannot be measured with numbers but are collected through descriptive characteristics including information regarding different cultures, traditions, behaviors, and/or customs. Online forums, web survey, online communities, depth interviews, and focus groups are some tools used to collect qualitative data.

Qualitative data has been described as voluminous and sometimes overwhelming to the researcher since qualitative data creates Mountains of Words (Johnson, Dunlap and Benoit, 2019). Producing self-reports from subject observations made during the research are transcribed into field notes with thousands of words, which makes it difficult to connect the variables together to come into an expected outcome. Therefore, large qualitative projects should be routinely managed to flow the data into a comprehensive database so as to make subsequent analysis of these data as efficient as possible. In article, “Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative”, strategies that would help a researcher manage and organize the data is to generate a coding system that permits individual interview responses to be converted into numeric codes for subsequent quantitative analysis. This helps to manage the Mountain of Words collected in qualitative research project to become efficient and addressed accordingly. Another strategy presented in this article is to systematically retrieve targeted data through software programs that is useful for analysis purposes. This is how the qualitative research approach is utilized for organizing and storing and retrieving data.

Reference:

Helbig, J. (2019). Nursing Research: Understanding Methods for Best Practice. [online] Lc.gcumedia.com. Available at: https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs433v/nursing-research-understanding-methods-for-best-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/1 [Accessed 15 Oct. 2019].

Johnson, B., Dunlap, E. and Benoit, E. (2019). Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative.

3). Allison Fry 

Discussion question:Qualitative data has been described as voluminous and sometimes overwhelming to the researcher. Discuss two strategies that would help a researcher manage and organize the data.

Classmate’s Answer/Response: Steps for managing qualitative data are as follows:

1.ACCURACY: Check if your data are of sufficient quality and accuracy before conducting a major analysis.
2. MAINTAIN COPIES: Prepare backups of the data management system. These backups should be updated
as data preparation and analysis proceeds.
3. ARRANGEMENT: Field notes or researcher commentary should be arranged in a
chronological, genre, cast-of-characters, event or activity, and topical or quantitative data file schema.
4. ORGANIZATION: Combine related themes into major categories. Label these categories and create file
(or Word document) for each major category.
5. LABELING: Create a system for labeling and storing interviews. This can be conducted using a unique name
or case identifier for each file. These should reveal crucial information about the file to researchers.
6. CATALOGUING: Catalogue all documents and artifacts.
7. SAFE STORAGE: All materials should be safely stored for future reference when writing or doing
research paper editing.
8. MISSING DATA: Check for missing data.
9. REVIEWING TEXT: Developing a method for reading and reviewing text. Quality control procedures
should be established.
10. KEEP TRACK OF SOURCES: Ensure that the source of all the data can be identified, such as by
individual, site, and date. Develop a data tracking system.
11. LOOK FOR TRENDS: While reading the text, look for key ideas and mark emerging themes. Use
abbreviations or symbols (codes) to label key themes, ideas, concepts, etc.
12. TRANSCRIPTION/TRANSLATION: Establish and document transcription/translation procedures.
https://medium.com/@setsindia/how-to-manage-qualitative-data-a-step-by-step-guide-e30716514b01

Two strategies I think that would help a researcher manage and organize the data most would be reviewing
text and organizing the data based on main ideas/theme for the qualitative data and labeling that creates a
system for storing data/easy access/easy way to look for data. These two strategies help save time, being one of the most important aspects of research.

4). Mary Arsenault

Discussion question:The three types of qualitative research are phenomenological, grounded theory, and ethnographic research. Compare the differences and similarities between two of the three types of qualitative studies and give an example of each.

Classmate’s Answer/Response:  Discussion on the differences and similarities between the phenomenological and ethnographic studies and examples of each:

Phenomenology is a qualitative research method that is used to describe how human beings experience a certain phenomenon and a phenomenological study attempts to set aside biases and preconceived assumptions about human experiences, feelings, and responses to a particular situation (Hasa, 2017). Ethnography focuses on the collective experiences of a community.

Difference Between Ethnography and Phenomenology

Focus

Ethnography: Ethnography focuses on the collective experience of a community.

Phenomenology: Phenomenology focuses on the individual experiences.

Data Collection Methods

Ethnography:Data can be collected through interviews, observations, and analysis of documents and artifacts.

Phenomenology: Interviews are the main method of data collection.

Subject

Ethnography:Ethnography studies the culture, behavior, attitudes and beliefs.

Phenomenology: Phenomenology studies individual experiences.

Time Period

Ethnography: Ethnographic research may take a considerably long time period than phenomenology.

Phenomenology: Phenomenological studies may not take as much time as ethnographic studies.

Conclusion

The main difference between ethnography and phenomenology is that ethnography focuses on the collective experiences of a community whereas phenomenology focuses on the individual experiences of individuals while phenomenology is based on the idea that there may be multiple ways of interpreting the same experience while ethnographers are more interested in uncovering knowledge about the culture as a whole says Hasa, (2017). They are both types of research.

Reference

Hasa. (2017, February 17). Difference Between Ethnography and Phenomenology: Definition, Features, Focus, Data Collection. Retrieved from https://pediaa.com/difference-between-ethnography-and-phenomenology/.

5). Allison Fry 

Discussion question:The three types of qualitative research are phenomenological, grounded theory, and ethnographic research. Compare the differences and similarities between two of the three types of qualitative studies and give an example of each.

Classmate’s Answer/Response:  Definitions:

Ethnography is a method aimed at examination of cultural behaviors. Researchers using ethnography seek to understand cultural behaviors and the reasons behind them on a deeper level. The researcher may deeply immerse themselves in the culture being observed. Data is often collected through participant observations and key informant interviews (Polit & Beck, 2017).

Phenomenology provides an approach that allows researchers to better understand a person’s lived experiences. Through this method, researchers attempt to gain a deeper understanding of significant phenomena in life. Data is usually collected through extensive interviews and conversations with study subjects. Sample sizes are generally small when this methodology is used (Polit & Beck, 2017).

Grounded theory is an approach that allows for researchers to consider phenomena of significance to nursing. The aim is to understand actions taken in an area by those who are involved in performing the actions. This methodology has led to the development of many middle-range, or narrower, practice-related nursing theories (Polit & Beck, 2017).

Examples:

Some examples of ethnography include traditional anthropologic texts, but also work being done in marketing and user experience, such as conducting interviews to understand how the user relates to products or services. A nursing example would be patient satisfaction interviews/surveys to ensure optimal outcomes based on patient’s experiences.

For example, in Field’s (1981) phenomenological study focusing on the nurses’ experience of giving an injection he identified the ‘phenomenon particular’ (the injection) as well as ‘phenomenon perceived’ (the lived experience of giving an injection).

Grounded theory involves the construction of new theory through the analysis of data. An example of Grounded theory is Beech N, Arber A, Faithfull SRestoring a sense of wellness following colorectal cancer: a grounded theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2012;68:113444doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05820.x They used grounded theory because previous studies had sought to answer this research question.

Similarities and Differences:

6). Alix Smith 

Discussion question:Qualitative data has been described as voluminous and sometimes overwhelming to the researcher. Discuss two strategies that would help a researcher manage and organize the data.

Classmate’s Answer/Response: Qualitative data defines things, the data collected is not numerical and is an important factor in describing an emotional response to a topic (Green and Johnson, 2018). One strategy that can be used in qualitative data research is conducting a written-out questioner this gives the researcher the opportunity to not only get true unbiased information, but it is also a way to keep information in order and available at all times. Another way to ensure that information is orderly and available is to conduct an interview and record all the details of the information (Team Trint, 2019). After doing this creating a spreadsheet that indicates where and when information was received as well as providing full details of the interview will keep all information in place and easily accessible. A researcher can also do recordings of interviews with the persons consent in order to ensure all information is available and the researcher can always refer to the interview at a later time(Team Trint, 2019).

Green, S. & Johnson, J (2018). Nursing Research: Understanding Methods For Best Practice. In Grand Canyon University (Eds.), History and Process of Nursing Research, Evidence-Based Nursing Practice, and Quantitative and Qualitative Research Process. Retrieved from: https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs433v/nursing-research-understanding-methods-for-best-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/1

 

Team Trint. (2019, March 21). How to organize your qualitative data collection. Retrieved from https://blog.trint.com/how-to-organize-your-qualitative-data-collection.

 

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