1. People often confuse the terms “intelligence,” “achievement,” and “aptitude,” but in psychology they are distinct concepts. What are some key distinctions among these three terms, and how are they evaluated through testing?
2. How has understanding of mental retardation changed over the years, and how has this differing understanding been reflected in methods used to evaluate retardation?
3. Imagine you are a school counselor presenting the results of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills to the parents of a sixth grader. What statistical methods could you use to help place this student’s score in context?
4. Imagine that you are a Ph.D. psychology student developing a testing instrument to research “grit” (the habit of responding constructively to failure). What type(s) of validity would you consider most important in developing this instrument, and how would you go about establishing it/them?