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Use 1.5 line spacing throughout the whole Dissertation with the exception of long quotations, diagram sources and the Reference List that are single-line spacing

Abstract (approximately 150-200 words that describe all of the important elements of the whole Dissertation.

This can only be written once you have completed the rest of the document)
Quantitative questionnaire & Hypothesis testing based on Independent Sample T-Tests

Literature Review
Sine the new standard changed the reconciliation method of the revenue and lease accounting model, the impact on the financial statements of organization is expected to be considerable, starting from the profit and loss account, balance sheet, and also other supporting schedule, as many metrics and ratios are use the profit and loss and/or balance sheet figure to do so. Before the new standard introduce, many authors had been estimated and analysed capitalize operating leases and measure the impact on ratios and financial statement of a sample set of organization by several methodologies. For example, Bennett and Bradbury (2003), Duke et al. (2009), Durocher (2008), Goodacre (2003), Grossman and Grossman (2010), Mulford and Gram (2007), or Singh (2012). For IFRS 16, it will have a more impact to the organization with high operating lease intensity (Morales and Zamora, 2017), such as airlines (aircraft leases), hotels (real estate leases), retail (real estate leases), etc.

And for IFRS 15, the industries will have the biggest impact include telecommunications and technology, oil & gas, mining & metals, consumer products and retail, and financial services, because the standard impact the revenue from contracts with customers.

Revenues are considered as an ideal component to examine as it is the largest earnings component for most firms. This principle is considered as ones of the most important standards elaborated since the accounting rules have been rewritten for recognition and measurement of an item that is present in the financial statement of all company, regardless of the sector in which it operates. (Stubben, 2010).
Moreover, revenues are considered an important measure of an entity’s performance because they are used both by investors and from others to make the decision about investments (Tong, 2014).

The standard was born from a conjunction project between IASB and US FASB. The exigence to measure the revenues appear and to have the same criterion to recognize because, before IFRS 15 launch FASB and IASB are having two different standards and this previous situation could compromise international comparability of financial statements. Considering the exigencies of the investors that want comparable financial and high-quality information, FASB and IASB decided to sign, in 2002, the Norwalk Agreement that proclaimed their intentions to eliminate the differences between US GAAP and IFRSs and to develop one set of high quality global accounting standards, among which, ones with topic on revenue recognition (Khamis, 2016).

Research Approach
One of the key goals of the research is to appraise how and what will affect by the new standards within the organizations, how they follow the standard (is there any information system support?), how they present the financial report, what is the different between before and after the new standard, and is there any feedback for the new standard. So that a quantitative approach is required to test relevant hypotheses on this issue.

As a result, a quantitative questionnaire will be distributed to students in Hong Kong, and staff who working in the finance department of the organizations. The total sample size of at least 120 will include at least 60 individuals is working as an accountant (prefer the staff is prepare the financial statement) in different sector of company in Hong Kong, to ensure the data gathered can be treated based on the parameters.

Demographic data such as gender, age, income etc. will not be collected as these factors are not consistent with the overall Aim and Research Objectives of the study Questionnaires will be distributed through social media in the first instance (convenience sampling) followed by a second tranche of friends and family members who are working or studying in finance by e-mail or communication application (like Whatsapp, etc.).

In addition, use the secondary research to have more details from journals, libraries or internet to have more data about the standards and effect, to make sure the research can provide the information as much as it can.


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